Poster Abstracts

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Shah Mohammad Bahauddin, LASP, CU Boulder
Authors: Shah Mohammad Bahauddin(1), Ivan Milic(2) and Mark Rast(1); (1) Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado Boulder. (2) National Solar Observatory

Deep Learning in DKIST era
The Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will perform high-resolution spectroscopic and polarimetric measurements in the visible and infrared spectrum of the Sun, and is expected to produce more than half a billion of images and several petabytes of data each year. Such a volume of data will exponentially increase the complexity and burden of data analysis while simultaneously opening many doors for data-driven discoveries. At this upcoming age of petabyte scale data analysis, deep learning algorithms are inevitably becoming the go-to tools for solar scientists to do automated feature learning, event classification and image denoising. However, deep learning can also offer its service as a possible tool for knowledge extraction by analyzing patterns, symmetries and correlations. Especially for high-dimensional data, deep learning algorithms show superior strength over other numerical processes in case of approximating underlying functions and/or joint probabilities. Here, I will discuss two of such opportunities: the first one is the problem of resolving the sources of local acoustic oscillations in the photosphere drowned in the sea of p-modes and compressive flows; the later problem is about enabling machine learning algorithms to do forward modelling of NLTE lines. Both problems have their own merits and challenges and offer a plethora of avenues in search for the potentials of deep learning in solar physics.


Barbara Emery-Geiger, HAO/NCAR and Boston College
Authors: Barbara A Emery1, David F Webb2, Sarah E Gibson3, Ian M Hewins1, Robert McFadden1 and Thomas A Kuchar2, (1) ISR, Boston College at HAO/NCAR, Boulder, CO, (2) Boston College, ISR, Chestnut Hill, MA, (3) NCAR, HAO, Boulder, CO

Primary and Secondary Solar Polar Crown Polarity Inversion Lines (PILs) over Five Solar Cycles
We undertake a five solar-cycle (SC19-23) study of the high latitude polar crown polarity inversion lines (PILs) or neutral lines that encircle the sun to elucidate deep-seated dynamo processes using the McIntosh Archive. The McIntosh Archive consists of a set of hand-drawn solar synoptic (Carrington) maps created by Patrick McIntosh from 1964 to 2009 (SC20-23) using H-alpha images and magnetograms for PILs, and He-I 10830A images for coronal holes since 1974. Filaments are the clearest tracer of PILs, along with fibril patterns and active region corridors, and the PILs trace the large-scale pattern of the global magnetic field. Most of these maps have now been digitized, with one gap in SC20. We also digitized all the Carrington maps created from Kodaikanal Solar Observatory data in India by Makarov and Sivaraman (1986) to extend the study back through SC19, or 1955-2009 for this study. We investigate slopes in the PILs rush to the poles in the ascending part of the solar cycle. In the period from polarity reversal near solar maximum and the end of solar minimum, we look at the latitude locations of the PILs and investigate periodicities using FFTs.


Larisza Krista, University of Colorado/CIRES
Authors: Larisza Krista (1,2), Matthew Chih (3), Daniel Seaton (1,2) , Paul Lotoaniu (1,2), University of Colorado/ CIRES (1), NOAA/NCEI (2), Marietta College (3)

A DEFT new way to detect solar flares
The timely detection of solar flares is of primary importance to space weather forecasting efforts that are critical to infrastructure services, remote sensing, space exploration and navigation. Currently, solar flare forecasting methods primarily rely on X-ray irradiance data without any visual imagery. Our goal is to take advantage of the new, high-sensitivity, real-time, low-latency data available from the GOES/Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) instrument in order to identify not only the time of the flare occurrence, but its location as well - a property that can influence the magnitude of the corresponding space weather effects. Furthermore, the new tool is capable of giving over ten minutes of advance warning before detrimental space weather effects occur. The high-sensitivity extreme ultraviolet data available to us is uniquely suitable to identify early signs of a flare development using our novel, robust and fast flare detection tool. By analyzing the flare development process the algorithm could also gain insight into how early ultraviolet signatures are related to flare magnitudes. It also provides a brand new insight into the deeper physics of flares and the ways in which energy is released and plasma is heated during the evolution of energetic solar eruptions. Studying the temporal development of flares in different wavelengths allows us to better understand how the initiation happens and what different physical environments and processes lead to instabilities in flaring regions and how it relates to the magnitude of severe space weather disturbances.


Greg Kopp, LASP
Authors: Greg Kopp (1), Odele Coddington (1), Thierry Dudok de Wit (2), Natalie Krivova (3), Judith Lean (1), Lisa Upton (4), Chi-Ju Wu (3), 1) LASP; 2) LPC2E; 3) MPS; 4) SSRC

New Historical TSI Reconstructions Based on the Revised 400-Year Sunspot Record
The four-decade-long total solar irradiance (TSI) space-borne measurement record is extended to historical times for long-term solar-variability and Earth-climate studies via solar models incorporating the 400-year-long series of sunspot measurements. Those sunspot records were recently revised using updated multi-observer composite-creation methods and newly-recovered measurement records from various observers. These revisions, the Sunspot Indices and Long-term Solar Observations (SILSO) V2.0 sunspot-number and a new group-sunspot-number composite, were released in 2015. Since the solar-irradiance models rely on the sunspot records for their historical reconstructions, the sunspot-record revisions affect the TSI reconstructions. Preliminary estimates of these effects for the two most prominent TSI models, the Naval Research Laboratory TSI (NRLTSI) model and the Spectral And Total Irradiance REconstructions (SATIRE) model, were described by Kopp et al. (Solar Physics, Vol. 291, 2016). Wu et al. refined the SATIRE historical reconstruction (A&A 2018) and similar efforts are underway for the NRLTSI model by a NASA Solar Irradiance Science Team (SIST). These TSI model refinements depend on new calculations of flux emergence and transport based on the updated sunspot-number records. The NRLTSI model improvements will incorporate results from the Advective Flux Transport (AFT) model (Upton and Hathaway, Ap.J. 780, 2014). We present here this SIST team’s efforts to continue updates to the spaceborne-era TSI composite and extend it backward in time via refined historical TSI reconstructions based on the revised sunspot records.


Anna Malanushenko, HAO/NCAR
Authors: A. Malanushenko(1), S. Gibson(1), K. Dalmasse(2), S. Merkin(3), E. Provornikova(3), A. Vourlidas(3), C. N. Arge(4), D. Nychka(5), M. Wiltberger(1), N. Flyer(1); (1) HAO/NCAR, (2) University of Toulouse, (3) APL/JHU, (4) NASA/GSFC, (5) Colorado School of Mines

Gibson & Low Flux Rope: More Than A Spheromak!
Modeling solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is very important for both understanding coronal physics and for improving the accuracy of space weather forecasts. While it is generally accepted that CMEs are primarily magnetic structures, the exact properties of these structures could differ in different models and events. A structure often considered is a spheromak, a toroidal twisted flux rope, which is ejected as a CME bubble. Another commonly considered structure is a twisted magnetic flux rope, which is anchored to the solar surface while its upper portion is ejected into interplanetary space. In this poster we will show how a well-known analytical magnetohydrodynamic CME model (Gibson&Low, 1998), generally considered a spheromak-like model, can be extended to represent both standard spheromak and twisted flux tube configurations, as well as other topologically distinct magnetic structures. We will begin with the general parameters of the flux rope in this model (such as size and stretching parameters), and explore topologically different configurations possible with their variation. We then present several dimensionless parameters, which can be varied to achieve these different configurations and consider how they relate to directly observable quantities. This work is particularly timely, as the Gibson & Low model is been increasingly used as input to numerical models of the solar corona and the heliosphere. The ability to generate topologically different magnetic configurations within this analytic solution is of great value to such simulations, as well as for the studies of the flux ropes forming in the solar corona.


Janet Machol, University of Colorado and NOAA NCEI

Authors: J. Machol(1, 2), F. Eparvier(3), D. Woodraska(3), M. Anfinson(3), T. Eden(3), A. Jones(3), R. Meisner(3), S. Mueller(3), C. Peck(1, 2), M. Snow(3), E. Thiemann(3), R. Viereck(1, 4); (1) CU CIRES, (2) NOAA NCEI, (3) CU LASP, (4) NOAA SWPC

The GOES-R Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Ray Irradiance Sensors (EXIS)
The first two (of four) GOES-R satellites launched in 2016 and 2018. We will describe the measurements and data products from the Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensors (EXIS) aboard GOES-R.The EXIS Extreme Ultraviolet Sensor (EUVS) on EXIS measures irradiances for 7 solar lines and Mg II. EUVS products include irradiances and a solar spectral model from 5-127 nm. The EXIS X-ray Sensor (XRS) on EXIS measures the two traditional GOES XRS bands that have been measured since 1974. We will discuss how the flux calibrations for the new and earlier GOES satellites have been recently revised.


Andres Munoz-Jaramillo, Southwest Research Institute

Authors:Andres Munoz-Jaramillo(1), Xavier Gitiaux(2), Anna Jungbluth(3), Shane Maloney(4), Carl Shneider(5), Paul Wright(6), Alfredo Kalaitzis(7), Michel Deudon(8), Atilim G. Baydin(3); (1) Southwest Research Institute, (2) George Mason University, (3) Oxford University, (4) Trinity College Dublin, (5) Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, (6) Stanford University, (7) Element AI, (8) Ecole Polytechnique Palaiseau

Calibrating and super-resolving MDI magnetograms to HMI using deep learning: 24 years of homogeneous magnetograms [From Ignite Talk]
Studies of the magnetic field of the Sun, and its influence on the solar dynamo and space weather events, have benefited from improvements in resolution and measurement frequency of new instruments. However, in order to fully understand the solar cycle, high-quality data across time-scales longer than the typical lifespan of a solar instrument are required.

At the moment, discrepancies between measurement surveys prevent the combined use of all available magnetogram data.

In this work, we show that machine learning can help bridge the gap between measurement surveys by learning to super-resolve low-resolution magnetic field images and translate between characteristics of contemporary instruments in orbit. This enables the creation of super-instruments with homogeneous characteristics and extended time coverage. We discuss the importance of using physically motivated metrics to ensure the viability of the solutions. We also stress the importance of validating the solutions using well understood science use cases in order to identify the limitations of these algorithms.


Alin Paraschiv, National Solar Observatory / Monash University
Authors: Alin Paraschiv(1,2), Alina Donea(1); (1) Monash University, (2) National solar Observatory

On Recurrent Active Region Coronal Jets: A Penumbral Coronal Geyser Structure
Active region 11302 displayed an unusually large number of solar jets during its lifetime. We have analysed the emission mechanism responsible for at least ten of the observed coronal jet events, all occurring at the south-eastern penumbral boundary of the AR. The identified events were observed in EUV and were correlated with corresponding low-lying magnetic features. The accurate detection of local magnetic fields is essential.

The study lead to the discovery of a peculiar lower corona hot arched structure. We introduce the terminology ”Coronal Geyser” to define the properties of this quasi-stable structure. The relation between the jet origin and other dynamic plasma features, such as flaring, low lying coronal loops, and twisted filaments, is debated. We focus here on Flux cancellations, dipole emergences, penumbral filaments and/or canopy fields embedded in a dynamical moat region that are all identified as playing a significant role in "fueling" the geyser.


Martin Snow, University of Colorado / LASP
Authors: M. Snow (1) and C. Raftery (2); (1) LASP, (2) NSO

Research Experience for Undergraduates with the Boulder Solar Alliance 2020
The Boulder Solar Alliance Research Experience for Undergraduates program enters its 14th year with its largest cohort ever. This poster will show the projects for this summer as well as the details of the schedule.


Ed Thiemann, LASP, University of Colorado Boulder
Authors: Edward M.B. Thiemann(1), Luke Epp(2), Francis G. Eparvier(1), Phillip C. Chamberlin (1); (1) Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado Boulder; (2) Colorado School of Mines

Center-to-Limb-Variability of Hot Coronal EUV Emissions During Solar Flares
It is generally accepted that densities of quiet-Sun and active region plasma are sufficiently low to justify the optically thin approximation, and this is commonly used in the analysis of line emissions from plasma in the solar corona. However, the densities of solar flare loops are substantially higher, compromising the optically thin approximation. This study begins with a radiative transfer model that uses typical solar flare densities and geometries to show that hot coronal emission lines are not generally optically thin. Furthermore, the model demonstrates that the observed line intensity should exhibit center-to-limb variability (CTLV), with flares observed near the limb being dimmer than those occurring near disk center. The model predictions are validated with an analysis of over 200 flares observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), which uses six lines, with peak formation temperatures between 8.9 and 15.8 MK, to show that limb flares are systematically dimmer than disk-center flares. The data are then used to show that the electron column density along the line of sight typically increases by 1.76×1019 cm−21.76×1019 cm−2 for limb flares over the disk-center flare value. It is shown that the CTLV of hot coronal emissions reduces the amount of ionizing radiation propagating into the solar system, and it changes the relative intensities of lines and bands commonly used for spectral analysis.

Regner Trampedach, Space Science Institute (SSI)
Authors: Regner Trampedach (1), Werner Däppen (2); (1) Space Science Institute, (2) Department of Physics and Astronomy, USC

MHD2020 - 'First Light' (project)
We have carried out a thorough upgrade of the Mihalas-Hummer-Däppen (MHD) equation of state (EOS). We have greatly benefited from increased computing power since its original publication in 1988, and used it for implementing more realistic, accurate and complete physics, increasing the number of elements from 6 to 27, adding 187 molecules and increasing the resolution in density and temperature. The new physics that is now included also greatly expands the range of validity allowing one EOS to cover a whole star, from core to atmosphere. We present some first results.

Oleg Troshichev, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute
Authors: Oleg Troshichev, Leonid Timokhov, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), St.Petersburg, Russia

Influence of solar activity on long-term variations of the ice-atmosphere system in Arctic (project)
The Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) initiates a project directed to research the solar activity influence on atmosphere-ocean-ice system in Arctic. The following topics will be examined in the initial stage of the study:

  • the long-term changes in the Arctic ice-ocean-atmosphere system and their possible relation to variations of solar activity
  • effects of astrophysical factors (distance between the Sun and the Earth, the change of the Earth’s rotation and oscillation of the Earth’s rotation axis) in long-term oscillations of the Earth’s climate and weather
  • influence of the solar and galactic cosmic rays (SPE and GCR) on atmospheric processes
  • the solar wind influence on atmospheric processes
  • effects of quasi-biennial oscillations (QBO) in atmosphere and their relation to solar activity
  • fluctuations of the solar UV irradiation in range 297-330 nm unrelated to solar activity cycle

The aim of the project is clarification of perspectives to forecast the space weather and the Earth’s climate and weather changes based on long-term time sequence of data as well as possible space weather –ice connection around the polar caps. ARI is taken an interest in collaboration with Boulder scientists in the above areas. It is suggested to explore the opportunity for scientific contacts, as well as possibilities of joint space weather monitoring, data processing and modeling.

Oleg Troshichev, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute

The Ground-Based Magnetic PC Index as a Tool for Monitoring the Solar Wind Energy Input into the Earth's Magnetosphere [From Ignite Talk]
The PC index was introduced [Troshichev et al., 1988] as a characteristic of magnetic activity in northern (PCN) and southern (PCS) polar caps. By the method of derivation the PC index is proportional to interplanetary electric field EKL=VSW BT2sin2(θ/2) [Kan and Lee, 1979] coupling with the magnetosphere, irrespective of LT time, season and hemisphere. It was shown (see [Troshichev, 2017]) that the PC index properly responds to changes of EKL field, on the one side, and precedes development of magnetospheric disturbances, on the other side. As this takes place, intensity of magnetic storm and substorms is linearly related to the preceding value of PC. These experimental results formed the physical backgrounds for concept that the ground-based PC index characterizes the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere [Resolution of XXII IAGAAssembly, Меxico, 2013]. Results of recent studies showed that (1) time evolution of the PC index in course of substorm development is well consistent with changes of the field-aligned currents intensity in the R1 FAC system in the morning (R=0.66) and evening (R=-0.62) sectors of the auroral zone, (2) the PC index in the winter polar cap (PCwinter) is the more precise characteristic of the polar cap magnetic activity, than the PCsummer index (3) the solar wind dynamic pressure impulses Psw promote the magnetic disturbances only if they are accompanied by the corresponding changes in EKL field and PC index (4) PC index makes it possible to evaluate the actual interplanetary electric field EKL coupling with the magnetosphere, and verify, in such manner, whether or not the solar wind, whose parameters are given in OMNI dataset, really encountered the magnetosphere. A special procedure agreed by the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (responsible for production of PCS index) and DTU Space (responsible for production of PCN index) ensures the calculation of the 1-min PC indices in quasi-real time based on data of magnetic observations at the polar cap stations Vostok (Antarctic) and Qaanaaq (Greenland). Thus, PC index provides the reliable monitoring the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere. References: Kan, J.R. and L.C.Lee (1979) Energy coupling function and solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo, Geophys Res Lett 6, 577. Troshichev O.A., V.G.Andrezen, S.Vennerstrøm and E.Friis-Christensen (1988) Magnetic activity in the polar cap – A new index. Planet Space Sci 36: 1095. Troshichev O.A. (2017) Polar cap magnetic activity (PC index) and space weather monitoring, Editions universitaires europeennes, 140 p., ISBN:978-3-8381-8012-0.


E-Posters

Tom Baltzer, LASP and Space Weather TREC
Authors: Tom Baltzer (1,2), Tom Berger (2), Delores Knipp (2), Jennifer Knuth (1,2), Doug Lindholm (1), Chris Pankratz (1,2), and the LASP Web Team (1); (1) Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, CU, (2) Space Weather TREC, CU

The Space Weather TREC (SWx TREC) Data Portal - a Tool for Enabling Research and Education
In our work with researchers and educators, we consistently hear that a significant barrier they encounter is obtaining datasets from disparate providers in varying formats and of having an idea of what is available (e.g. is there an instrument outage during the time of interest?) before downloading it is challenging. Further, obtaining similar datasets for different timeframes is equally difficult. This is particularly challenging for space weather researchers attempting to characterize an event from the moment of occurrence on the Sun to the impacts it has on the Earth since so many disparate datasets are available for so many different timeframes.

As part of the University of Colorado’s Space Weather Technology, Research and Education Center (SWx-TREC https://www.colorado.edu/spaceweather/), the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) has released and continues to develop a Space Weather Portal (http://lasp.colorado.edu/space-weather-portal) to provide unified access to disparate datasets to help close the Research to Operations (R2O) and Operations to Research (O2R) gap. This presentation will describe how this portal can be used to characterize an historical event (2015 St. Patrick’s day storm) from available datasets, visualize them and download them for further use. It will also describe the underlying middleware (LaTiS) that enables the portal.


Serena Criscuoli, National Solar Observatory
Authors: S. Marchenko(1,2), S. Criscuoli(3), M. T. DeLand(1,2), D. P. Choudary(4), G. Kopp(5), 1)Science System and Applications, 2)Goddard Space Flight Center, 3)National Solar Observatory, 4)San Fernando Observatory, 5)University of Colorado/LASP

Solar Activity responses observed in Balmer lines
We follow variability patterns in various solar lines in order to relate them to emergence/passage/decay of active solar regions. The line activity indices (core-to-wing ratio) for the upper Balmer lines, Hβ, Hγ and Hδ, are constructed from the daily solar measurements acquired by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI). On the solar rotation timescales the upper-Balmer line activity indices closely, r ∼ −(0.6 − 0.7), follow variations in the total solar irradiance, thus frequently (specifically, during passages of big sunspot groups) deviating from behavior of the line-activity indices that track chromospheric activity levels (e.g., the CH 430 nm band used in this study).


Hunter Leise, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics
Authors: Hunter Leise (1), Tom Baltzer (1), Anne Wilson (1), Douglas M. Lindholm (1), Martin A. Snow (1), Don Woodraska (1), Stéphane Béland (1), Odele Coddington (1), Chris Pankratz (1), and the LASP Web Team (1); (1) Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics

LISIRD: An Online Resource for Making Solar Data More Accessible
Finding quality solar data can be difficult, and getting the data in a format that you can analyze can be even more cumbersome. The LASP Interactive Solar IRradiance Datacenter (LISIRD), https://lasp.colorado.edu/lisird/, seeks to eliminate these burdens. LISIRD is a website where researchers can discover, visualize, and download solar data from a variety of space missions, instruments, models, and laboratories. LISIRD seeks to empower solar researchers by making solar data openly available and easy to analyze through an intuitive user interface, detailed metadata, interactive plotting capabilities, numerous download customization options, and a catalog of over 75 datasets.

This e-poster presentation will demonstrate the key features of LISIRD, provide details on the datasets it serves, outline plans for improvement and growth, and discuss how it can be used as a valuable resource in your work.

We’re always open to including additional datasets, so feel free to reach out to us at lisird@lasp.colorado.edu to discuss the possibility of including your data on LISIRD.


Chris Lowder, Southwest Research Institute
Authors: Chris Lowder, Derek Lamb, Craig DeForest, Southwest Research Institute
Modeling the Steady Solar Wind with an Observationally Driven Fluxon Coronal Magnetic Field
Here we describe the development of a flexible and efficient framework for a real-time capable solar wind predictive model. Our model allows for the isolation of geometric expansion in open magnetic fieldlines to explore the role of geometry in setting solar wind speed and density, distinct from other effects such as intermittent reconnection. The Field Line Universal relaXer (FLUX) code models the solar corona as a collection of magnetic domains, represented by a quasi-Lagrangian grid of discrete field lines (fluxons). Each fluxon represents a defined quantity of magnetic flux and responds to magnetic tension and pressure forces from neighboring fluxons. The model relaxes a collection of fluxons to solve the nonlinear force-free field with a prescribed boundary and topology. Synoptic magnetogram data are used to drive initial fluxon placement and topology, with the output of an observationally-driven relaxed coronal magnetic field. Open fluxons extending from the photospheric boundary are used to compute a set of modified one-dimensional isothermal Parker solar wind solutions, with transonic solutions interpolated to an outer spherical boundary grid at 21.5 solar radii for comparison with and distribution to other heliospheric models. The FLUX model has the distinct advantages of being computationally efficient (scaling with the complexity of the two-dimensional boundary) and preserving connectivity to allow for tracking the history of a bundle of magnetic flux.


Alin Paraschiv, National Solar Observatory
Authors: Alin Paraschiv(1), Phil Judge(2); (1) National Solar Observatory, (2) High Altitude Observatory

Automated "Single Point" Inversions of Infrared Forbidden Lines for DKIST Coronal Observations
We present preliminary results on an inversion scheme that can be applied to polarimetric measurements of forbidden lines formed in the solar corona. We aim to find optimal fits to synthetic data, delivering information on the vector magnetic field, thermal properties and line of sight position from a single point in the corona.

The azimuthal angle is derived from the linear polarization and the line-of-sight magnetic fields are derived via the magnetograph formulation. Our method complements these calculations to achieve full vector magnetic fields. We create a database of emergent Stokes profiles from a Monte Carlo exploration of the parameter space. In building the database set, we first reduce the line formation problem to an irreducible form, factoring out linear parameters such as the magnetic field strength, and using native symmetries in the line formation problem to reduce the dimensionality of the needed calculations.

We "precondition" the observed data with simple linear transformations and a rotation of the Stokes profiles around the line-of-sight axis through Sun center, which affects only the linearly polarized components. We show that calculations confined to the ecliptic plane are sufficient to explore the full 3D space. After the best-fit profiles are found, the necessary transformations are applied in reverse to the matching geometric, magnetic and thermal parameters to estimate them in 3D space. We then highlight the natural degeneracies in the analysis and examine their accuracy and sensitivity to noise.

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