HAO Research Highlights

A and B line graphs depicting measured and modelled total solar irradiance
March 1, 2022

How the solar electromagnetic energy entering the Earth’s atmosphere varied since pre-industrial times is an important consideration in the climate change debate.

6 colorful diagrams of various MURaM models
February 23, 2022

There has been tremendous progress in the degree of realism of three-dimensional radiation magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmosphere in the past decades. Four of the most frequently used numerical codes are Bifrost, CO5BOLD, MANCHA3D and MURaM.

6 maps of the magnetic field strength
February 23, 2022

The stability of sunspots is one of the long-standing unsolved puzzles in the field of solar magnetism and the solar cycle.

6 graphs showing a two-dimensional test simulation setup
February 23, 2022

Partially ionized plasmas, such as the solar chromosphere, require a generalized Ohm's law including the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift.

December 2, 2021

Outer zone radiation belt electron flux is highly variable and responds differently to different solar wind drivers.