Alan Burns https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/ en The effects of IMF By on the middle thermosphere during a geomagnetically “quiet” period at solar minimum https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/publication-highlight/effects-imf-middle-thermosphere-during-geomagnetically-quiet-period <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The effects of IMF By on the middle thermosphere during a geomagnetically “quiet” period at solar minimum</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kolinski</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 07/11/2022 - 15:02</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31">Alan Burns</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-subtitle"> <p class="field field--name-field-subtitle field--type-string field--label-above mb-4 mt-n4">Publication: JR Space Physics; Authors: Xuguang Cai, Wenbin Wang, Alan Burns, Liying Qian, Richard W. Eastes</p> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">kolinski</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Jul 11, 2022</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><figure class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-default figure mb-1 mb-md-4"> <p> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/extra_large/public/2022-07/Cai_nfig1.png?itok=jUK_Zur4" width="926" height="405" alt="The polar view of the percentage difference of simulated ∑O/N2 and GOLD observed ∑O/N2 between DOY 111 and 110 at 15:10 UT in 2019. The perimeter latitude is 30°N" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-extra-large img-fluid" /></p> <figcaption class="figure-caption pb-1"> <p>The polar view of the percentage difference of simulated ∑O/N2 and GOLD observed ∑O/N2 between DOY 111 and 110 at 15:10 UT in 2019. The perimeter latitude is 30°N</p> </figcaption> </figure> <p>Numerical simulations using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIE-GCM) are performed to elucidate the effects of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the middle thermosphere composition during a “geomagnetically quiet” period from the day of year (DOY) 110-111 in 2019 (when the Auroral electrojet (AE) index never exceeded 300 nT and the Kp never exceeded 2). In particular, this paper aims to examine how the Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission observed daytime thermospheric O and N2 column density ratio (∑O/N2) depletion at mid-latitudes originated under such a “geomagnetically quiet” condition. A comparison of electric potential, Joule heating rate per unit mass, ion velocity, neutral temperature and winds in the middle thermosphere (∼160 km) between real IMF and without the IMF east-west component (By) indicates that a By dominant condition can enhance their strengths under this “geomagnetically quiet” condition. Consequently, ∑O/N2 depletion with a stronger magnitude (30% compared with ∼8% without By) and larger disturbed area was introduced in the post-midnight sector at high-latitudes due to strong and localized upwelling associated with the enhanced Joule heating rate per unit mass. The ∑O/N2 depletion was transported equatorward and corotated from local post-midnight to early morning, and was observed by GOLD at middle latitudes during daytime.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container block block-views block-views-blockarticles-recent-news"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Recent News</h2> <div><div class="view view-articles view-id-articles view-display-id-recent_news js-view-dom-id-20eb81660d80b79f3a6a48b6bd650b93dded4c7faf2d775e4696eaca93f2fb3b"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="views-view-grid horizontal cols-3 col-12 mb-2 mb-md-4"> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-1"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/news-article/hawaiis-mauna-loa-erupts-after-38-years-mauna-loa-solar-observatory-temporarily" hreflang="en"><img 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block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2022-05-05T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Thu, 05/05/2022 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="en">Alan Burns</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Wenbin Wang</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/38" hreflang="en">Xuguang Cai</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/7" hreflang="en">Earth&#039;s upper atmosphere</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/37" hreflang="en">GOLD</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/13" hreflang="en">modeling</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/25" hreflang="en">TIEGCM</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Mon, 11 Jul 2022 21:02:35 +0000 kolinski 599 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu NASA Features Research by HAO Scientist Xuguang Cai https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/news-article/nasa-features-research-hao-scientist-xuguang-cai <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">NASA Features Research by HAO Scientist Xuguang Cai</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kolinski</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 11/18/2021 - 13:58</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31">Alan Burns</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">kolinski</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Nov 18, 2021</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Since 2017, HAO has provided scientific support and analysis for NASA's Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD).&nbsp;This mission includes a ultraviolet imaging spectrograph that flies on a commercial communications satellite in geostationary orbit taking images of the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere. NASA's recent featured article discusses the "unexpected behavior" captured by GOLD images. The article quotes Dr.Xuguang Cai, a researcher at HAO: "Since GOLD is on a geostationary satellite, we can capture 2D time evolution of these dynamics." Recently, several of Dr. Cai's research papers have been reported by NASA.gov, and are cited on these pages:</p> <ul> <li> <p><a href="https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2021/gold-s-bird-s-eye-reveals-dynamics-in-earth-s-interface-to-space">GOLD’s Bird’s-Eye Reveals Dynamics in Earth’s Interface to Space</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="https://blogs.nasa.gov/sunspot/2021/08/30/golds-top-down-view-of-our-atmosphere/">GOLD’s Top-Down View of Our Atmosphere</a></p> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container block block-views block-views-blockarticles-recent-news"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Recent News</h2> <div><div class="view view-articles view-id-articles view-display-id-recent_news js-view-dom-id-e48a8eba5991ac7020f3aa8b487fbca7bbd6d3c7494693aa1618a817e4c65db4"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="views-view-grid horizontal cols-3 col-12 mb-2 mb-md-4"> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-1"> <div class="col"><div 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src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Zhu_Temporal%20variations%20of%20the%20ion%20convection%20boundary.png?itok=xU0LXQHY" width="480" height="255" alt="Temporal variations of the ion convection boundary" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 14, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/inter-hemispheric-asymmetries-high-latitude-electrodynamic-forcing-and"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Inter-Hemispheric Asymmetries in the High-Latitude Electrodynamic Forcing and the Thermosphere During the October 8-9, 2012 Geomagnetic Storm: An Integrated Data-Model Investigation</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-4"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Maute_perturbationAmplitudes.jpg?itok=BRSLJoPb" width="480" height="326" alt="Seasonal variations of monthly-zonal-mean small-scale perturbation amplitudes" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 18, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Seasonal Variations of Small-Scale Waves observed by ICON-MIGHTI</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2021-09-07T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Tue, 09/07/2021 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="en">Alan Burns</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/32" hreflang="en">Jing Liu</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/29" hreflang="en">Stan Solomon</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Wenbin Wang</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/38" hreflang="en">Xuguang Cai</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/37" hreflang="en">GOLD</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Thu, 18 Nov 2021 20:58:13 +0000 kolinski 87 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu Responses of the Thermosphere and Ionosphere System to Concurrent Solar Flares and Geomagnetic Storms https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/publication-highlight/responses-thermosphere-and-ionosphere-system-concurrent-solar-flares-and <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Responses of the Thermosphere and Ionosphere System to Concurrent Solar Flares and Geomagnetic Storms</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kolinski</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 11/17/2021 - 10:13</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31">Alan Burns</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-subtitle"> <p class="field field--name-field-subtitle field--type-string field--label-above mb-4 mt-n4">Publication Name: JGR; Author&#039;s Names: Liying Qian, Wenbin Wang, Alan G. Burns, Phillip C. Chamberlin, Stanley C. Solomon</p> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">kolinski</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Nov 17, 2021</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>We conducted numerical simulations to examine dayside thermosphere and ionosphere responses to concurrent solar flares and a geomagnetic storm during September 6th – September 11th, 2017, as well as the interplay of flare and storm effects. We found that E-region electron density response to the flares was much smaller inside the auroral oval than it was outside the auroral oval due to an extra source of ionization by auroral particle precipitation. During quiet times in this period, flare enhanced ionization, which decreased daytime eastward electric fields, caused an initial weakening of the vertical E x B drifts.</p> <figure class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-default figure mb-1 mb-md-4"> <p> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/extra_large/public/2021-11/Qian_simulatedVertical-ExB-DriftVelocity.jpg?itok=7HV86LaM" width="926" height="682" alt="The simulated vertical E x B drift velocity (Wi), and the changes of the vertical drift velocity due to the flares, at 300 km and12:00 LT (September 6th – September 11th, 2017)" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-extra-large img-fluid" /></p> <figcaption class="figure-caption pb-1"> <p>The simulated vertical E x B drift velocity (Wi), and the changes of the vertical drift velocity due to the flares, at 300 km and12:00 LT (September 6th – September 11th, 2017). (a) Wi using the flare spectrum and observed Kp; (b) Wi using the daily spectrum and observed Kp; (c) the difference between (a) and (b), which is the response to the flares in the presence of the storm; (d) the GOES X-ray energy flux in 0.1 – 0.8nm; (e) the Dst index. The vertical dashed lines indicate the flare peaks.</p> </figcaption> </figure> <p>This weakening of the vertical E x B drifts was on the order of ~ 20% for an X8.2 flare in this period. During storm times, flare-induced initial changes of the vertical plasma drifts varied between being positive and being negative, depending on latitudes, due to storm-time disturbance dynamo effects. Storm effects also overall weakened flare effects on geopotential height, ionospheric F2 peak height hmF2, and ionospheric F2 peak electron density NmF2. In addition, storm effects changed the latitudinal distributions of flare effects on hmF2, NmF2, vertical plasma drifts, and O/N2. On the other hand, no major X-class flare occurred shortly before or during the storm. Model simulations indicate that the weaker C- and M- class flares that occurred before and during the storm had a minor effect on the amplitude of the large-scale traveling atmosphere disturbances generated by the storm.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container block block-views block-views-blockarticles-recent-news"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Recent News</h2> <div><div class="view view-articles view-id-articles view-display-id-recent_news js-view-dom-id-fe59f98ee1921420c06ceb5d2978560fc66f2fa5edc708cf819c84cc13e78a0a"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="views-view-grid horizontal cols-3 col-12 mb-2 mb-md-4"> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-1"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/news-article/hawaiis-mauna-loa-erupts-after-38-years-mauna-loa-solar-observatory-temporarily" 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field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Maute_perturbationAmplitudes.jpg?itok=BRSLJoPb" width="480" height="326" alt="Seasonal variations of monthly-zonal-mean small-scale perturbation amplitudes" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 18, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Seasonal Variations of Small-Scale Waves observed by ICON-MIGHTI</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2020-07-01T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Wed, 07/01/2020 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="en">Alan Burns</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/29" hreflang="en">Stan Solomon</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Wenbin Wang</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/36" hreflang="en">solar flare</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Wed, 17 Nov 2021 17:13:03 +0000 kolinski 59 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu Comparison of GOLD nighttime measurements with total electron content: preliminary results https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/publication-highlight/comparison-gold-nighttime-measurements-total-electron-content <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Comparison of GOLD nighttime measurements with total electron content: preliminary results</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kolinski</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 11/16/2021 - 15:37</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31">Alan Burns</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-subtitle"> <p class="field field--name-field-subtitle field--type-string field--label-above mb-4 mt-n4">ublication: Journal of Geophysical Research, Space Physics; Authors: Xuguang Cai, Alan G. Burns, Wenbin Wang, Anthea Coster, Liying Qian, Jing Liu, Stanley C. Solomon, Richard W. Eastes, Robert E. Daniell, William E. McClintock</p> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">kolinski</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Nov 16, 2021</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global‐scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) has been imaging the thermosphere and ionosphere since October 2018. It provides continuous measurements over a large area from its geostationary orbit. The unambiguous 2-dimensional (2D) maps of OI 135.6 nm radiance retrieved from GOLD after sunset are compared with the total electron content (TEC) maps measured by GPS receivers in the American sector. The OI 135.6 nm radiance observed by GOLD is an indicator of the peak electron density of the ionosphere F2 region, while the TEC is the total electron density in the column.</p> <figure class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-default figure mb-1 mb-md-4"> <p> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/extra_large/public/2021-11/XuguangCai_Figure.png?itok=dXWkCOQj" width="926" height="914" alt="The comparison between the GOLD map and TEC2 map on DOY 72 in 2019 23:10-23:40 (top) and 23:55-24:25 (bottom)" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-extra-large img-fluid" /></p> <figcaption class="figure-caption pb-1"> <p>The comparison between the GOLD map and TEC2 map on DOY 72 in 2019 23:10-23:40 (top) and 23:55-24:25 (bottom). The white part stands for the data unavailability and the pink line is the geomagnetic equator. The black points stand for the location of the peaks of the EIA.</p> </figcaption> </figure> <p>Our comparisons show that the two datasets match each other very well in the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) morphology and its seasonal variability. Equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) are evident in GOLD nighttime OI 135.6 radiance. Corresponding depletions are shown in TEC maps, but without GOLD data as a reference, it is difficult to discern that the depletions are EPBs. In addition, both GOLD 135.6 radiance and TEC maps observed third peaks of electron density poleward of the southern EIA crests. Furthermore, both show that the ionosphere after sunset is quite dynamic and has strong day-to-day variability. In all, the GOLD and TEC have valuable synergy to allow us to gain a better understanding of the equatorial ionosphere.</p> <p>Link to paper: <a href="https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2019JA027767">Comparison of GOLD Nighttime Measurements With Total Electron Content: Preliminary Results</a></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container block block-views block-views-blockarticles-recent-news"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Recent News</h2> <div><div class="view view-articles view-id-articles view-display-id-recent_news js-view-dom-id-b8fcf9e5839754d6ad2ba092774046fbebd1aeed008a12f48dc37be11abcb460"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="views-view-grid horizontal cols-3 col-12 mb-2 mb-md-4"> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-1"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a 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hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Maute_maximumShear.jpg?itok=id9P5eHJ" width="480" height="241" alt="Example of maximum shear determination in zonal wind from 1 orbit of MIGHTI observations" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 14, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/horizontal-wind-shears-lower-thermosphere-observed-icon"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Horizontal wind shears in the lower thermosphere observed by ICON</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/investigation-post-sunset-extra-electron-density-peak-poleward" hreflang="en"><img 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src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Gibson_CavityWidths-SDO.AIA__0.png?itok=gN76eNR5" width="455" height="480" alt="Cavity widths observed by SDO/AIA" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 27, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/coronal-cavities-comp-observations"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Coronal Cavities in CoMP Observations</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/inter-hemispheric-asymmetries-high-latitude-electrodynamic-forcing-and" hreflang="en"><img 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field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Maute_perturbationAmplitudes.jpg?itok=BRSLJoPb" width="480" height="326" alt="Seasonal variations of monthly-zonal-mean small-scale perturbation amplitudes" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 18, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Seasonal Variations of Small-Scale Waves observed by ICON-MIGHTI</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2020-08-28T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Fri, 08/28/2020 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="en">Alan Burns</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/29" hreflang="en">Stan Solomon</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Wenbin Wang</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/7" hreflang="en">Earth&#039;s upper atmosphere</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/37" hreflang="en">GOLD</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Tue, 16 Nov 2021 22:37:36 +0000 kolinski 50 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu The 2‐D Evolution of Thermospheric ∑O/N2 Response to Weak Geomagnetic Activity During Solar‐Minimum Observed by GOLD https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/publication-highlight/2-d-evolution-thermospheric-on2-response-weak-geomagnetic-activity <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The 2‐D Evolution of Thermospheric ∑O/N2 Response to Weak Geomagnetic Activity During Solar‐Minimum Observed by GOLD</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kolinski</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 11/16/2021 - 15:34</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31">Alan Burns</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-subtitle"> <p class="field field--name-field-subtitle field--type-string field--label-above mb-4 mt-n4">Publication Name: Geophysical Research Letters; First HAO Author&#039;s Name: Xuguang Cai; Other Authors: Alan G. Burns, Wenbin Wang, Liying Qian, Stanley C. Solomon Richard W. Eastes, Nicolas Pedatella, Robert E. Daniell, Will</p> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">kolinski</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Nov 16, 2021</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>We conduct observational and modeling studies of thermospheric composition responses to weak geomagnetic activity (non-geomagnetic storms). We found that the thermospheric O and N 2 column density ratio (∑O/N 2 ) in part of the Northern Hemisphere measured by Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) exhibited large and long-lived depletions during weak geomagnetic activity in May and June 2019.</p> <figure class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-default figure mb-1 mb-md-4"> <p> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/extra_large/public/2021-11/Cai%2CX_2D-EvolutionOfThermospheric-%E2%88%91O_N2-response_0.jpg?itok=IqLQqRiw" width="926" height="425" alt="(top) The Kp and Dst index of three cases (DOY 145 to 148; DOY 153 to 156; DOY 162 to 165); (middle) latitude-longitude distribution of ∑O/N2 percentage difference between two quiet days in three cases; (bottom) percentage difference of ∑O/N2 between disturbed and quiet days in three cases. Corresponding local time is marked on longitude interval" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-extra-large img-fluid" /></p> <figcaption class="figure-caption pb-1"> <p>(top) The Kp and Dst index of three cases (DOY 145 to 148; DOY 153 to 156; DOY 162 to 165); (middle) latitude-longitude distribution of ∑O/N2 percentage difference between two quiet days in three cases; (bottom) percentage difference of ∑O/N2 between disturbed and quiet days in three cases. Corresponding local time is marked on longitude interval.</p> </figcaption> </figure> <p>The depletions reached 30% of quiet time values, extended equatorward to 10°N, and lasted more than 10 hours. Furthermore, numerical simulation results are similar to these observations and indicate that the ∑O/N 2 depletions were pushed westward by zonal winds. The ∑O/N 2 evolution during weak geomagnetic activity suggests that the formation mechanism of the ∑O/N 2 depletions is similar to that during a geomagnetic storm. The effects of weak geomagnetic activity are often ignored, but, in fact, are important for understanding thermosphere neutral composition variability and hence the state of the thermosphere-ionosphere system.</p> <div class="resources-main border-0"> <a href="/sites/default/files/2021-11/2020%20Cai%20The%20two%20dimensional%20Evolution.pdf" class="i-file-pdf--before" target="_blank">2020 Cai The two dimensional Evolution</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container block block-views block-views-blockarticles-recent-news"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Recent News</h2> <div><div class="view view-articles view-id-articles view-display-id-recent_news js-view-dom-id-9a2241a502f4b411636a854763d1e168c35d511bc0711d60765f118df5913b3c"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="views-view-grid horizontal cols-3 col-12 mb-2 mb-md-4"> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-1"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div 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block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2020-09-16T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Wed, 09/16/2020 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="en">Alan Burns</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/16" hreflang="en">Nick Pedatella</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/29" hreflang="en">Stan Solomon</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Wenbin Wang</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/7" hreflang="en">Earth&#039;s upper atmosphere</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/37" hreflang="en">GOLD</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Tue, 16 Nov 2021 22:34:30 +0000 kolinski 49 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu Observation of Postsunset OI 135.6 nm radiance Enhancement in South America by the Global-scale Observation of Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/publication-highlight/observation-postsunset-oi-1356-nm-radiance-enhancement-south-america <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Observation of Postsunset OI 135.6 nm radiance Enhancement in South America by the Global-scale Observation of Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kolinski</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 11/16/2021 - 14:43</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31">Alan Burns</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-subtitle"> <p class="field field--name-field-subtitle field--type-string field--label-above mb-4 mt-n4">Publication: Journal of Geophysical Research—Space Physics; Authors: Xuguang Cai, Alan G. Burns, Wenbin Wang, Liying Qian, Jing Liu, Stanley C. Solomon, Richard W. Eastes, Robert E. Daniell</p> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">kolinski</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Nov 16, 2021</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The Global-scale Observation of Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission, for the first time, provides synoptic two-dimensional (2D) maps of OI 135.6 nm observations. These maps describe the unambiguous and dynamic evolution of nighttime ionospheric F2-peak electron densities (NmF2) as the 135.6 nm airglow emission radiance correlates well with NmF2 at night. On November 19, 2018, the 135.6 nm radiance measured by GOLD, NmF2 measured by a digisonde, and GPS total electron content (TEC) measurements at Cachoeira Paulista (CP) all showed a postsunset enhancement, with an increase near 22:30 universal time.</p> <figure class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-default figure mb-1 mb-md-4"> <p> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/extra_large/public/2021-11/Cai_GOLD-Channel-B.jpg?itok=zPGnUD5J" width="926" height="425" alt="The latitude-longitude distribution of the OI 135.6 nm radiance measured by GOLD Channel B from 22:25 to 23:55 UT (22:25, 22:55, 23:10, 23:25, 23:40 and 23:55) on Nov 19, 2018" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-extra-large img-fluid" /></p> <figcaption class="figure-caption pb-1"> <p>The latitude-longitude distribution of the OI 135.6 nm radiance measured by GOLD Channel B from 22:25 to 23:55 UT (22:25, 22:55, 23:10, 23:25, 23:40 and 23:55) on Nov 19, 2018. The white cross in each subplot marked the location of CP (22.7°S, 45°W), and the black point is the location of EIA southern crest peak at 45°W. The red line marked the coast line of South America continent. The white area on each subplot stand for the area that is not scanned by GOLD.</p> </figcaption> </figure> <p>The 135.6 nm radiance map showed that this enhancement was due to the southward movement of the southern equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest. Therefore, the GOLD observation showed the linkage between postsunset enhancement of NmF2 and EIA movement. Furthermore, unlike the southward movement of the southern crest, the corresponding EIA northern crest, however, did not show northward motion. This is the first time that the EIA hemispheric asymmetry, which included both different densities and movement of two crests in a short time period (less than 2-hours), was captured. 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typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 19, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/lagrangian-study-tidal-advection-mesospheric-water-vapor"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">A Lagrangian Study of Tidal Advection of Mesospheric Water Vapor</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/coronal-cavities-comp-observations" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Gibson_CavityWidths-SDO.AIA__0.png?itok=gN76eNR5" width="455" height="480" alt="Cavity widths observed by SDO/AIA" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 27, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/coronal-cavities-comp-observations"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Coronal Cavities in CoMP Observations</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/inter-hemispheric-asymmetries-high-latitude-electrodynamic-forcing-and" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Zhu_Temporal%20variations%20of%20the%20ion%20convection%20boundary.png?itok=xU0LXQHY" width="480" height="255" alt="Temporal variations of the ion convection boundary" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 14, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/inter-hemispheric-asymmetries-high-latitude-electrodynamic-forcing-and"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Inter-Hemispheric Asymmetries in the High-Latitude Electrodynamic Forcing and the Thermosphere During the October 8-9, 2012 Geomagnetic Storm: An Integrated Data-Model Investigation</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-4"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Maute_perturbationAmplitudes.jpg?itok=BRSLJoPb" width="480" height="326" alt="Seasonal variations of monthly-zonal-mean small-scale perturbation amplitudes" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 18, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Seasonal Variations of Small-Scale Waves observed by ICON-MIGHTI</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2020-12-08T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Tue, 12/08/2020 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="en">Alan Burns</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/32" hreflang="en">Jing Liu</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/29" hreflang="en">Stan Solomon</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Wenbin Wang</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/38" hreflang="en">Xuguang Cai</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/37" hreflang="en">GOLD</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Tue, 16 Nov 2021 21:43:25 +0000 kolinski 39 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu Investigation of a neutral ‘tongue’ observed by GOLD during the geomagnetic storm on May 11,2019 https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/publication-highlight/investigation-neutral-tongue-observed-gold-during-geomagnetic-storm-may <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Investigation of a neutral ‘tongue’ observed by GOLD during the geomagnetic storm on May 11,2019</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kolinski</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 11/15/2021 - 15:46</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31">Alan Burns</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-subtitle"> <p class="field field--name-field-subtitle field--type-string field--label-above mb-4 mt-n4">Publication: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics; First HAO Author: Xuguang Cai; Authors as listed in article: Xuguang Cai, Alan G. Burns, Wenbin Wang, Liying Qian, Stanley C. Solomon, Richard W. Eastes, and William E. McClintock</p> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">kolinski</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Nov 15, 2021</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global-scale observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission observed a unique structure of thermospheric column density ratio of O to N2 (∑O/N2) during a geomagnetic storm on day of year (DOY) 130 (May 10) to DOY 132 in 2019. The percentage difference of ∑O/N2 between the storm time (DOY 131) and the quiet time (DOY 128) had a relatively enhanced ∑O/N2 region sandwiched by two depleted regions over North America and the Atlantic Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere. This ∑O/N2 enhancement region is called the neutral tongue here.</p> <figure class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-default figure mb-1 mb-md-4"> <p> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/extra_large/public/images/Cai_distributionPercentageDifference_nfig4.jpg?itok=O9s9enoq" width="926" height="425" alt="Latitude-longitude distribution of percentage difference (Diff %) of GOLD observed ∑O/N2 between DOY 131 and 128 from 6:10 UT to 22:40 UT with 2-hour intervals" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-extra-large img-fluid" /></p> <figcaption class="figure-caption pb-1"> <p>Latitude-longitude distribution of percentage difference (Diff %) of GOLD observed ∑O/N2 between DOY 131 and 128 from 6:10 UT to 22:40 UT with 2-hour intervals.</p> </figcaption> </figure> <p>The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) also predicted a similar ∑O/N2 structure with the same spatial and temporal evolution as that seen in the GOLD observations on DOY 131. Model diagnostic analysis revealed that the neutral tongue was formed when the neutral wind in the region changed from mostly equatorward to poleward, which transported the ∑O/N2 rich air from lower latitudes into this longitude section, forming the neutral tongue. The neutral tongue separated an earlier-formed large depletion region into two smaller depleted regions on each side of the neutral tongue.</p> <p>Link to paper: <a href="https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2020JA028817">Investigation of a Neutral “Tongue” Observed by GOLD During the Geomagnetic Storm on May 11, 2019</a></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container block block-views block-views-blockarticles-recent-news"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Recent News</h2> <div><div class="view view-articles view-id-articles view-display-id-recent_news js-view-dom-id-948eca7b45e32083b45ba09e3999d9c7caca5ed829ff00f7c0fee7043b51defa"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="views-view-grid horizontal cols-3 col-12 mb-2 mb-md-4"> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-1"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden 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src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Gibson_CavityWidths-SDO.AIA__0.png?itok=gN76eNR5" width="455" height="480" alt="Cavity widths observed by SDO/AIA" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 27, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/coronal-cavities-comp-observations"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Coronal Cavities in CoMP Observations</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/inter-hemispheric-asymmetries-high-latitude-electrodynamic-forcing-and" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Zhu_Temporal%20variations%20of%20the%20ion%20convection%20boundary.png?itok=xU0LXQHY" width="480" height="255" alt="Temporal variations of the ion convection boundary" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 14, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/inter-hemispheric-asymmetries-high-latitude-electrodynamic-forcing-and"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Inter-Hemispheric Asymmetries in the High-Latitude Electrodynamic Forcing and the Thermosphere During the October 8-9, 2012 Geomagnetic Storm: An Integrated Data-Model Investigation</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-4"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Maute_perturbationAmplitudes.jpg?itok=BRSLJoPb" width="480" height="326" alt="Seasonal variations of monthly-zonal-mean small-scale perturbation amplitudes" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 18, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Seasonal Variations of Small-Scale Waves observed by ICON-MIGHTI</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2021-05-04T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Tue, 05/04/2021 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="en">Alan Burns</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/29" hreflang="en">Stan Solomon</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Wenbin Wang</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/38" hreflang="en">Xuguang Cai</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/37" hreflang="en">GOLD</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/25" hreflang="en">TIEGCM</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Mon, 15 Nov 2021 22:46:36 +0000 kolinski 25 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu Variations in thermosphere composition and ionosphere total electron content under ‘geomagnetically quiet’ conditions at solar-minimum https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/publication-highlight/variations-thermosphere-composition-and-ionosphere-total-electron <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Variations in thermosphere composition and ionosphere total electron content under ‘geomagnetically quiet’ conditions at solar-minimum</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kolinski</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 11/15/2021 - 15:29</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31">Alan Burns</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-subtitle"> <p class="field field--name-field-subtitle field--type-string field--label-above mb-4 mt-n4">Publication name: Geophysical Research Letters; Authors: Xuguang Cai, Alan G. Burns, Wenbin Wang, Liying Qian, Nicholas Pedatella, Anthea Coster, Shunrong Zhang, Stanley C. Solomon, Richard W. Eastes, Robert E. Daniell, William E. McClintock</p> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">kolinski</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Nov 15, 2021</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>We conducted observational and modeling studies of thermospheric composition and ionospheric total electron content (TEC) variations during two geomagnetically quiet periods (maximum Kp=1.7) at solar minimum. Daytime thermospheric O and N2 column density ratio (∑O/N2) observed by Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) and TEC from a network of ground-based Global Navigation Satellites System receivers both exhibited large (∼30% of reference values) and long-lived (5-11 hours) day-to-day variations in roughly the same mid-latitude geographic regions.</p> <figure class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-default figure mb-1 mb-md-4"> <p> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/extra_large/public/images/nfig1nA%2520%25282%2529.jpg?itok=xNbXhBJN" width="926" height="926" alt="a) AE index and b) Kp and Dst between DOY 109 and 112" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-extra-large img-fluid" /></p> <figcaption class="figure-caption pb-1"> <p>a) AE index and b) Kp and Dst between DOY 109 and 112. The percentage difference of observed c) ∑O/N2 and d) TEC between DOY 111 and 110 at 15:10 UT. The corresponding percentage difference of ∑O/N2 and TEC simulated by TIE-GCM with Weimer (e and f) and TIE-GCM without Weimer (g and h)</p> </figcaption> </figure> <p>Numerical simulations replicated the observed variability, though not perfectly. Analysis of the simulations suggested that the variations were mainly generated in the high-latitudes, and were subsequently advected equatorward and westward. When high-latitudes input was turned off in simulations, the variations were negligible. This suggested the potentially important role of high-latitude geomagnetic forcing in thermospheric composition and ionospheric density variations at mid-latitudes even during some ‘geomagnetically quiet’ periods at solar-minimum.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container block block-views block-views-blockarticles-recent-news"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Recent News</h2> <div><div class="view view-articles view-id-articles view-display-id-recent_news js-view-dom-id-02c34763eb6c7b9527c4d7543c710a4dba077a28c7e0c7f1b9169bc65930e48e"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="views-view-grid horizontal cols-3 col-12 mb-2 mb-md-4"> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-1"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a 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hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Maute_maximumShear.jpg?itok=id9P5eHJ" width="480" height="241" alt="Example of maximum shear determination in zonal wind from 1 orbit of MIGHTI observations" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 14, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/horizontal-wind-shears-lower-thermosphere-observed-icon"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Horizontal wind shears in the lower thermosphere observed by ICON</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/investigation-post-sunset-extra-electron-density-peak-poleward" hreflang="en"><img 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field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Maute_perturbationAmplitudes.jpg?itok=BRSLJoPb" width="480" height="326" alt="Seasonal variations of monthly-zonal-mean small-scale perturbation amplitudes" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 18, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Seasonal Variations of Small-Scale Waves observed by ICON-MIGHTI</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2021-05-28T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Fri, 05/28/2021 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="en">Alan Burns</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/16" hreflang="en">Nick Pedatella</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/29" hreflang="en">Stan Solomon</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Wenbin Wang</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/38" hreflang="en">Xuguang Cai</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/37" hreflang="en">GOLD</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/25" hreflang="en">TIEGCM</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Mon, 15 Nov 2021 22:29:20 +0000 kolinski 23 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu Geospace response to an extreme solar flare https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/publication-highlight/geospace-response-extreme-solar-flare <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Geospace response to an extreme solar flare</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kolinski</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 11/15/2021 - 14:58</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31">Alan Burns</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-subtitle"> <p class="field field--name-field-subtitle field--type-string field--label-above mb-4 mt-n4">Publication Name: AGU Advances; HAO Author: Jing Liu; Authors names as listed: Jing Liu, Wenbin Wang, Liying Qian, William Lotko, Alan G. Burns, Kevin Pham, Gang Lu, Stanley C. Solomon, et al.</p> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">kolinski</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Nov 15, 2021</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Solar flares—a sudden eruption of electromagnetic radiation at the Sun—are known to have significant impacts on Earth’s upper atmosphere and ionosphere, but their collective effects on geospace as an integrated system have never been examined. We use a newly developed whole geospace model, combined with key observational data, to study the effects of the 6 September 2017 X9.3 flare on the geospace system.</p> <figure class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-default figure mb-1 mb-md-4"> <p> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/extra_large/public/images/Liu_SolarFlareEffects.png?itok=VE61Osfz" width="926" height="765" alt="Solar flare effects on magnetospheric convection and ionospheric potential" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-extra-large img-fluid" /></p> <figcaption class="figure-caption pb-1"> <p>Solar flare effects on magnetospheric convection and ionospheric potential. Comparison of 50-minute averages (12:02-12:51 UT) from LTR simulations of magnetospheric and ionospheric states on September 6, 2017 with and without solar flare effects. Bottom row: LTR-simulated magnetospheric convection velocity in equatorial plane (ZGSM = 0) with (A) and without (B) solar flare effects and their difference (C). Arrows indicate direction and magnitude (also in color) of the convection velocity projected onto the plane. Top row: High-latitude electric potential, essentially convection streamlines in the ionosphere with (D) and without (E) solar flare effects and their difference (F). The minimum and maximum potentials are labeled below panels (D-F).</p> </figcaption> </figure> <p>The analysis shows that the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction, magnetotail, field-aligned current distribution, auroral precipitation and high-latitude ionospheric convection respond to atmospheric absorption of solar flare radiation. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that a rapid and large increase in the iono-spheric E-region photoionization due to a solar transient event globally modifies the electrodynamic cou-pling of the geospace system.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container block block-views block-views-blockarticles-recent-news"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Recent News</h2> <div><div class="view view-articles view-id-articles view-display-id-recent_news js-view-dom-id-989cc861fce30a206eb062635c2995a5d9f95b10665c82022c433a92877647a3"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="views-view-grid horizontal cols-3 col-12 mb-2 mb-md-4"> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-1"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/news-article/hawaiis-mauna-loa-erupts-after-38-years-mauna-loa-solar-observatory-temporarily" 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src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Maute_maximumShear.jpg?itok=id9P5eHJ" width="480" height="241" alt="Example of maximum shear determination in zonal wind from 1 orbit of MIGHTI observations" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 14, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/horizontal-wind-shears-lower-thermosphere-observed-icon"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Horizontal wind shears in the lower thermosphere observed by ICON</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/investigation-post-sunset-extra-electron-density-peak-poleward" hreflang="en"><img 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href="/news/publication-highlight/lagrangian-study-tidal-advection-mesospheric-water-vapor" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Pedatella_DW1advectedH2O.png?itok=QXmqdjt2" width="479" height="480" alt="DW1 advected H2O volume mixing ratio" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 19, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/lagrangian-study-tidal-advection-mesospheric-water-vapor"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">A Lagrangian Study of Tidal Advection of Mesospheric Water Vapor</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/coronal-cavities-comp-observations" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Gibson_CavityWidths-SDO.AIA__0.png?itok=gN76eNR5" width="455" height="480" alt="Cavity widths observed by SDO/AIA" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 27, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/coronal-cavities-comp-observations"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Coronal Cavities in CoMP Observations</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/inter-hemispheric-asymmetries-high-latitude-electrodynamic-forcing-and" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Zhu_Temporal%20variations%20of%20the%20ion%20convection%20boundary.png?itok=xU0LXQHY" width="480" height="255" alt="Temporal variations of the ion convection boundary" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 14, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/inter-hemispheric-asymmetries-high-latitude-electrodynamic-forcing-and"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Inter-Hemispheric Asymmetries in the High-Latitude Electrodynamic Forcing and the Thermosphere During the October 8-9, 2012 Geomagnetic Storm: An Integrated Data-Model Investigation</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-4"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Maute_perturbationAmplitudes.jpg?itok=BRSLJoPb" width="480" height="326" alt="Seasonal variations of monthly-zonal-mean small-scale perturbation amplitudes" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 18, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Seasonal Variations of Small-Scale Waves observed by ICON-MIGHTI</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2021-06-18T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Fri, 06/18/2021 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="en">Alan Burns</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/34" hreflang="en">Gang Lu</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/32" hreflang="en">Jing Liu</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/56" hreflang="en">Kevin Pham</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/29" hreflang="en">Stan Solomon</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Wenbin Wang</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/33" hreflang="en">William Lotko</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/7" hreflang="en">Earth&#039;s upper atmosphere</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/13" hreflang="en">modeling</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/36" hreflang="en">solar flare</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/5" hreflang="en">solar wind</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/35" hreflang="en">Sun-Earth connection</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Mon, 15 Nov 2021 21:58:00 +0000 kolinski 21 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu Climate Changes in the Upper Atmosphere: Contributions by the Changing Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and Earth's Magnetic Field From the 1960s to 2010s https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/publication-highlight/climate-changes-upper-atmosphere-contributions-changing-greenhouse-gas <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Climate Changes in the Upper Atmosphere: Contributions by the Changing Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and Earth&#039;s Magnetic Field From the 1960s to 2010s</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kolinski</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 11/15/2021 - 14:52</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31">Alan Burns</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-subtitle"> <p class="field field--name-field-subtitle field--type-string field--label-above mb-4 mt-n4">Publication: JGR; HAO Author: Liying Qian; Authors as listed in article: Liying Qian, Joseph M. McInerney, Stan S. Solomon, Hanli Liu, and Alan G. Burns</p> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">kolinski</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Nov 15, 2021</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Previous studies have established the importance of the increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in causing trends in the thermosphere and ionosphere (T-I). Recent work indicates that the changing Earth’s magnetic field is also important. We conduct whole atmosphere model simulations to examine T-I trends driven by these two drivers and their relative importance.</p> <figure class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-default figure mb-1 mb-md-4"> <p> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/extra_large/public/images/Qian_SimulatedThermosphere-IonosphereTemperatures.jpg?itok=Bmp4btNY" width="926" height="706" alt="Simulated thermosphere and ionosphere temperatures at 300 km in the 1960s, thermosphere mass density at 400 km in the 1960s, and their changes from the 1960s to 2010s, at 17UT" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-extra-large img-fluid" /></p> <figcaption class="figure-caption pb-1"> <p>Simulated thermosphere and ionosphere temperatures at 300 km in the 1960s, thermosphere mass density at 400 km in the 1960s, and their changes from the 1960s to 2010s, at 17UT, due to the change of greenhouse gas concentrations, and the change of the Earth’s magnetic field, respectively, under solar minimum and geomagnetically quiet conditions. (a), (a1), (a2): Neutral temperature and its changes; (b), (b1), (b2): ion temperature and its changes; (c), (c1, (c2): electron temperature and its changes; (d), (d1), d(2): mass density and its changes.</p> </figcaption> </figure> <p>We found that, (1) trends in the T-I, driven by either of the two drivers, exhibited significant latitudinal and longitudinal variability; (2) in the thermosphere, trends were predominantly driven by the greenhouse gas driver except that the magnetic field driver played a small role in the neutral temperature trend (~ 25%) in some regions mainly in the longitude sector ~ 120oW – 20oE. The magnetic field driver played a more important role in the ionosphere in the longitude sector ~ 120oW – 20oE. In this longitude sector, the two drivers were comparable in driving the trends of hmF2, NmF2, and electron temperature; the relative importance of the two drivers to the ion temperature trend additionally depends on altitude, with the greenhouse gas driver being the dominant driver at lower altitudes (~ 200 km – 320 km), and the two drivers becoming comparable above; (3) although the magnetic field driver is important in the longitude sector ~ 120oW – 20oE, it drove both negative and positive trends in roughly equal amounts, consequently, its contributions to the global average trends in the T-I are negligible.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container block block-views block-views-blockarticles-recent-news"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Recent News</h2> <div><div class="view view-articles view-id-articles view-display-id-recent_news js-view-dom-id-0f371a6d2196968b89eeae3d23e36a2ee47e71de72022658c507da217f934e87"> <div class="view-content"> <div 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row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-4"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Maute_perturbationAmplitudes.jpg?itok=BRSLJoPb" width="480" height="326" alt="Seasonal variations of monthly-zonal-mean small-scale perturbation amplitudes" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 18, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Seasonal Variations of Small-Scale Waves observed by ICON-MIGHTI</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2021-06-23T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Wed, 06/23/2021 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="en">Alan Burns</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/30" hreflang="en">Hanli Liu</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/28" hreflang="en">Joseph McInerney</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/29" hreflang="en">Stan Solomon</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/7" hreflang="en">Earth&#039;s upper atmosphere</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/13" hreflang="en">modeling</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Mon, 15 Nov 2021 21:52:05 +0000 kolinski 20 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu