Xuguang Cai https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/ en Investigation of the Post-Sunset Extra Electron Density Peak Poleward of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly Southern Crest https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/publication-highlight/investigation-post-sunset-extra-electron-density-peak-poleward <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Investigation of the Post-Sunset Extra Electron Density Peak Poleward of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly Southern Crest</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/6" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">whawkins</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 10/18/2022 - 10:36</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/38">Xuguang Cai</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">whawkins</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Oct 18, 2022</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em><a href="https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2022JA030755">JGR Space Physics</a>—<strong>Xuguang Cai</strong>, <strong>Liying Qian</strong>, <strong>Wenbin Wang</strong>, <strong>Joseph M. McInerney</strong>, <strong>Han-Li Liu</strong>, and Richard W. Eastes</em></p> <p>The Global-scale observation of limb and disk mission observed an extra electron density (Ne) peak after sunset at approximately 30°S near 40°W on 4 November 2019, which is poleward and immediately next to the southern equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest. This Ne peak is different from previously reported mid-latitude peaks that occur at all local times. The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model-eXtended captures this phenomenon. Model diagnostic analysis reveals that the decrease of Ne and hmF2 between 15° and 25°S makes Ne near 30°S appear as an extra density peak relative to the southern EIA crest. Transport by poleward meridional wind decreases Ne between 15° and 25°S. Moreover, the upward E × B drifts due to pre-reversal enhancement lift the plasma between the dip equator and 15°S but do not affect Ne much between 15° and 25°S with a low drift speed. Comparison with days without the extra peak shows the importance of E × B drift latitudinal variations on the extra peak formation. This study provides new insights into the dynamic variability of the nighttime ionosphere.</p> <figure class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-default figure mb-1 mb-md-4"> <p> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/extra_large/public/2022-10/Qian%2CLiying_Lat-longDistr.NmF2simula.png?itok=gKrHgOM1" width="926" height="482" alt="Latitude-longitude distribution and NmF2 simulation" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-extra-large img-fluid" /></p> <figcaption class="figure-caption pb-1"> <p>Latitude-longitude distribution of OI 135.6 nm radiance observed by GOLD (top) and NmF2 simulated by WACCM-X (bottom) from 21:55 UT to 22:55 UT on DOY 308 in 2019.</p> </figcaption> </figure> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container block block-views block-views-blockarticles-recent-news"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Recent News</h2> <div><div class="view view-articles view-id-articles view-display-id-recent_news 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class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Seasonal Variations of Small-Scale Waves observed by ICON-MIGHTI</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2022-10-18T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Tue, 10/18/2022 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/30" hreflang="en">Hanli Liu</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/28" hreflang="en">Joseph McInerney</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Wenbin Wang</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/38" hreflang="en">Xuguang Cai</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/17" hreflang="en">WACCM</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Tue, 18 Oct 2022 16:36:05 +0000 whawkins 739 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu The effects of IMF By on the middle thermosphere during a geomagnetically “quiet” period at solar minimum https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/publication-highlight/effects-imf-middle-thermosphere-during-geomagnetically-quiet-period <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The effects of IMF By on the middle thermosphere during a geomagnetically “quiet” period at solar minimum</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kolinski</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 07/11/2022 - 15:02</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/38">Xuguang Cai</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-subtitle"> <p class="field field--name-field-subtitle field--type-string field--label-above mb-4 mt-n4">Publication: JR Space Physics; Authors: Xuguang Cai, Wenbin Wang, Alan Burns, Liying Qian, Richard W. Eastes</p> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">kolinski</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Jul 11, 2022</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><figure class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-default figure mb-1 mb-md-4"> <p> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/extra_large/public/2022-07/Cai_nfig1.png?itok=jUK_Zur4" width="926" height="405" alt="The polar view of the percentage difference of simulated ∑O/N2 and GOLD observed ∑O/N2 between DOY 111 and 110 at 15:10 UT in 2019. The perimeter latitude is 30°N" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-extra-large img-fluid" /></p> <figcaption class="figure-caption pb-1"> <p>The polar view of the percentage difference of simulated ∑O/N2 and GOLD observed ∑O/N2 between DOY 111 and 110 at 15:10 UT in 2019. The perimeter latitude is 30°N</p> </figcaption> </figure> <p>Numerical simulations using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIE-GCM) are performed to elucidate the effects of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the middle thermosphere composition during a “geomagnetically quiet” period from the day of year (DOY) 110-111 in 2019 (when the Auroral electrojet (AE) index never exceeded 300 nT and the Kp never exceeded 2). In particular, this paper aims to examine how the Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission observed daytime thermospheric O and N2 column density ratio (∑O/N2) depletion at mid-latitudes originated under such a “geomagnetically quiet” condition. A comparison of electric potential, Joule heating rate per unit mass, ion velocity, neutral temperature and winds in the middle thermosphere (∼160 km) between real IMF and without the IMF east-west component (By) indicates that a By dominant condition can enhance their strengths under this “geomagnetically quiet” condition. Consequently, ∑O/N2 depletion with a stronger magnitude (30% compared with ∼8% without By) and larger disturbed area was introduced in the post-midnight sector at high-latitudes due to strong and localized upwelling associated with the enhanced Joule heating rate per unit mass. The ∑O/N2 depletion was transported equatorward and corotated from local post-midnight to early morning, and was observed by GOLD at middle latitudes during daytime.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container block block-views block-views-blockarticles-recent-news"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Recent News</h2> <div><div class="view view-articles view-id-articles view-display-id-recent_news js-view-dom-id-052c720ab8ffc8902089ba134ccd4fe830814aa15b04e396efb9ee90a36e504e"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="views-view-grid horizontal cols-3 col-12 mb-2 mb-md-4"> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-1"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/news-article/hawaiis-mauna-loa-erupts-after-38-years-mauna-loa-solar-observatory-temporarily" hreflang="en"><img 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src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Maute_maximumShear.jpg?itok=id9P5eHJ" width="480" height="241" alt="Example of maximum shear determination in zonal wind from 1 orbit of MIGHTI observations" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 14, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/horizontal-wind-shears-lower-thermosphere-observed-icon"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Horizontal wind shears in the lower thermosphere observed by ICON</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/investigation-post-sunset-extra-electron-density-peak-poleward" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Qian%2CLiying_Lat-longDistr.NmF2simula.png?itok=HZnaJDN2" width="480" height="250" alt="Latitude-longitude distribution and NmF2 simulation" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 18, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/investigation-post-sunset-extra-electron-density-peak-poleward"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Investigation of the Post-Sunset Extra Electron Density Peak Poleward of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly Southern Crest</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-3"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a 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src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Gibson_CavityWidths-SDO.AIA__0.png?itok=gN76eNR5" width="455" height="480" alt="Cavity widths observed by SDO/AIA" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 27, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/coronal-cavities-comp-observations"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Coronal Cavities in CoMP Observations</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/inter-hemispheric-asymmetries-high-latitude-electrodynamic-forcing-and" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Zhu_Temporal%20variations%20of%20the%20ion%20convection%20boundary.png?itok=xU0LXQHY" width="480" height="255" alt="Temporal variations of the ion convection boundary" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 14, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/inter-hemispheric-asymmetries-high-latitude-electrodynamic-forcing-and"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Inter-Hemispheric Asymmetries in the High-Latitude Electrodynamic Forcing and the Thermosphere During the October 8-9, 2012 Geomagnetic Storm: An Integrated Data-Model Investigation</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-4"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Maute_perturbationAmplitudes.jpg?itok=BRSLJoPb" width="480" height="326" alt="Seasonal variations of monthly-zonal-mean small-scale perturbation amplitudes" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 18, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Seasonal Variations of Small-Scale Waves observed by ICON-MIGHTI</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2022-05-05T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Thu, 05/05/2022 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="en">Alan Burns</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Wenbin Wang</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/38" hreflang="en">Xuguang Cai</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/7" hreflang="en">Earth&#039;s upper atmosphere</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/37" hreflang="en">GOLD</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/13" hreflang="en">modeling</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/25" hreflang="en">TIEGCM</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Mon, 11 Jul 2022 21:02:35 +0000 kolinski 599 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu NASA Features Research by HAO Scientist Xuguang Cai https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/news-article/nasa-features-research-hao-scientist-xuguang-cai <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">NASA Features Research by HAO Scientist Xuguang Cai</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kolinski</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 11/18/2021 - 13:58</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/38">Xuguang Cai</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">kolinski</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Nov 18, 2021</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Since 2017, HAO has provided scientific support and analysis for NASA's Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD).&nbsp;This mission includes a ultraviolet imaging spectrograph that flies on a commercial communications satellite in geostationary orbit taking images of the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere. NASA's recent featured article discusses the "unexpected behavior" captured by GOLD images. The article quotes Dr.Xuguang Cai, a researcher at HAO: "Since GOLD is on a geostationary satellite, we can capture 2D time evolution of these dynamics." Recently, several of Dr. Cai's research papers have been reported by NASA.gov, and are cited on these pages:</p> <ul> <li> <p><a href="https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2021/gold-s-bird-s-eye-reveals-dynamics-in-earth-s-interface-to-space">GOLD’s Bird’s-Eye Reveals Dynamics in Earth’s Interface to Space</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="https://blogs.nasa.gov/sunspot/2021/08/30/golds-top-down-view-of-our-atmosphere/">GOLD’s Top-Down View of Our Atmosphere</a></p> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container block block-views block-views-blockarticles-recent-news"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Recent News</h2> <div><div class="view view-articles view-id-articles view-display-id-recent_news js-view-dom-id-c532533af6c6eb2d767753a7f823a42ced32545c4b1f0d51fe24a163d9a6b418"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="views-view-grid horizontal cols-3 col-12 mb-2 mb-md-4"> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-1"> <div class="col"><div 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<a href="/news/publication-highlight/horizontal-wind-shears-lower-thermosphere-observed-icon" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Maute_maximumShear.jpg?itok=id9P5eHJ" width="480" height="241" alt="Example of maximum shear determination in zonal wind from 1 orbit of MIGHTI observations" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 14, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/horizontal-wind-shears-lower-thermosphere-observed-icon"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Horizontal wind shears in the lower thermosphere observed by ICON</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/investigation-post-sunset-extra-electron-density-peak-poleward" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Qian%2CLiying_Lat-longDistr.NmF2simula.png?itok=HZnaJDN2" width="480" height="250" alt="Latitude-longitude distribution and NmF2 simulation" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 18, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/investigation-post-sunset-extra-electron-density-peak-poleward"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Investigation of the Post-Sunset Extra Electron Density Peak Poleward of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly Southern Crest</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-3"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field 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src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Zhu_Temporal%20variations%20of%20the%20ion%20convection%20boundary.png?itok=xU0LXQHY" width="480" height="255" alt="Temporal variations of the ion convection boundary" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 14, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/inter-hemispheric-asymmetries-high-latitude-electrodynamic-forcing-and"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Inter-Hemispheric Asymmetries in the High-Latitude Electrodynamic Forcing and the Thermosphere During the October 8-9, 2012 Geomagnetic Storm: An Integrated Data-Model Investigation</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-4"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-10/Maute_perturbationAmplitudes.jpg?itok=BRSLJoPb" width="480" height="326" alt="Seasonal variations of monthly-zonal-mean small-scale perturbation amplitudes" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 18, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Seasonal Variations of Small-Scale Waves observed by ICON-MIGHTI</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2021-09-07T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Tue, 09/07/2021 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="en">Alan Burns</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/32" hreflang="en">Jing Liu</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/29" hreflang="en">Stan Solomon</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Wenbin Wang</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/38" hreflang="en">Xuguang Cai</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/37" hreflang="en">GOLD</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Thu, 18 Nov 2021 20:58:13 +0000 kolinski 87 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu Observation of Postsunset OI 135.6 nm radiance Enhancement in South America by the Global-scale Observation of Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/publication-highlight/observation-postsunset-oi-1356-nm-radiance-enhancement-south-america <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Observation of Postsunset OI 135.6 nm radiance Enhancement in South America by the Global-scale Observation of Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kolinski</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 11/16/2021 - 14:43</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/38">Xuguang Cai</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-subtitle"> <p class="field field--name-field-subtitle field--type-string field--label-above mb-4 mt-n4">Publication: Journal of Geophysical Research—Space Physics; Authors: Xuguang Cai, Alan G. Burns, Wenbin Wang, Liying Qian, Jing Liu, Stanley C. Solomon, Richard W. Eastes, Robert E. Daniell</p> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">kolinski</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Nov 16, 2021</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The Global-scale Observation of Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission, for the first time, provides synoptic two-dimensional (2D) maps of OI 135.6 nm observations. These maps describe the unambiguous and dynamic evolution of nighttime ionospheric F2-peak electron densities (NmF2) as the 135.6 nm airglow emission radiance correlates well with NmF2 at night. On November 19, 2018, the 135.6 nm radiance measured by GOLD, NmF2 measured by a digisonde, and GPS total electron content (TEC) measurements at Cachoeira Paulista (CP) all showed a postsunset enhancement, with an increase near 22:30 universal time.</p> <figure class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-default figure mb-1 mb-md-4"> <p> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/extra_large/public/2021-11/Cai_GOLD-Channel-B.jpg?itok=zPGnUD5J" width="926" height="425" alt="The latitude-longitude distribution of the OI 135.6 nm radiance measured by GOLD Channel B from 22:25 to 23:55 UT (22:25, 22:55, 23:10, 23:25, 23:40 and 23:55) on Nov 19, 2018" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-extra-large img-fluid" /></p> <figcaption class="figure-caption pb-1"> <p>The latitude-longitude distribution of the OI 135.6 nm radiance measured by GOLD Channel B from 22:25 to 23:55 UT (22:25, 22:55, 23:10, 23:25, 23:40 and 23:55) on Nov 19, 2018. The white cross in each subplot marked the location of CP (22.7°S, 45°W), and the black point is the location of EIA southern crest peak at 45°W. The red line marked the coast line of South America continent. The white area on each subplot stand for the area that is not scanned by GOLD.</p> </figcaption> </figure> <p>The 135.6 nm radiance map showed that this enhancement was due to the southward movement of the southern equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest. Therefore, the GOLD observation showed the linkage between postsunset enhancement of NmF2 and EIA movement. Furthermore, unlike the southward movement of the southern crest, the corresponding EIA northern crest, however, did not show northward motion. This is the first time that the EIA hemispheric asymmetry, which included both different densities and movement of two crests in a short time period (less than 2-hours), was captured. The cause of this asymmetric movement of the two crests is not clear and requires further investigation.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container block block-views block-views-blockarticles-recent-news"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Recent News</h2> <div><div class="view view-articles view-id-articles view-display-id-recent_news js-view-dom-id-a7436d73cab29f0349bdff2949936acf1c9a54e201ef8793a300ebf806d8c8e8"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="views-view-grid horizontal cols-3 col-12 mb-2 mb-md-4"> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-1"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a href="/news/news-article/hawaiis-mauna-loa-erupts-after-38-years-mauna-loa-solar-observatory-temporarily" hreflang="en"><img src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/2022-11/MLeruptionLava.png?itok=NHfdX7TB" width="480" 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loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-large img-fluid" /> </a> </div> </figure> <div class="pb-1 text-gray-dark text-uppercase date--sm">Oct 18, 2022</div> <h3 class="card-title"> <a href="/news/publication-highlight/seasonal-variations-small-scale-waves-observed-icon-mighti"><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Seasonal Variations of Small-Scale Waves observed by ICON-MIGHTI</span> </a> </h3> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2020-12-08T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Tue, 12/08/2020 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="en">Alan Burns</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/32" hreflang="en">Jing Liu</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/29" hreflang="en">Stan Solomon</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Wenbin Wang</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/38" hreflang="en">Xuguang Cai</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/37" hreflang="en">GOLD</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Tue, 16 Nov 2021 21:43:25 +0000 kolinski 39 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu Investigation of a neutral ‘tongue’ observed by GOLD during the geomagnetic storm on May 11,2019 https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/publication-highlight/investigation-neutral-tongue-observed-gold-during-geomagnetic-storm-may <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Investigation of a neutral ‘tongue’ observed by GOLD during the geomagnetic storm on May 11,2019</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kolinski</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 11/15/2021 - 15:46</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/38">Xuguang Cai</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-subtitle"> <p class="field field--name-field-subtitle field--type-string field--label-above mb-4 mt-n4">Publication: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics; First HAO Author: Xuguang Cai; Authors as listed in article: Xuguang Cai, Alan G. Burns, Wenbin Wang, Liying Qian, Stanley C. Solomon, Richard W. Eastes, and William E. McClintock</p> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">kolinski</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Nov 15, 2021</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global-scale observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission observed a unique structure of thermospheric column density ratio of O to N2 (∑O/N2) during a geomagnetic storm on day of year (DOY) 130 (May 10) to DOY 132 in 2019. The percentage difference of ∑O/N2 between the storm time (DOY 131) and the quiet time (DOY 128) had a relatively enhanced ∑O/N2 region sandwiched by two depleted regions over North America and the Atlantic Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere. This ∑O/N2 enhancement region is called the neutral tongue here.</p> <figure class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-default figure mb-1 mb-md-4"> <p> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/extra_large/public/images/Cai_distributionPercentageDifference_nfig4.jpg?itok=O9s9enoq" width="926" height="425" alt="Latitude-longitude distribution of percentage difference (Diff %) of GOLD observed ∑O/N2 between DOY 131 and 128 from 6:10 UT to 22:40 UT with 2-hour intervals" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-extra-large img-fluid" /></p> <figcaption class="figure-caption pb-1"> <p>Latitude-longitude distribution of percentage difference (Diff %) of GOLD observed ∑O/N2 between DOY 131 and 128 from 6:10 UT to 22:40 UT with 2-hour intervals.</p> </figcaption> </figure> <p>The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) also predicted a similar ∑O/N2 structure with the same spatial and temporal evolution as that seen in the GOLD observations on DOY 131. Model diagnostic analysis revealed that the neutral tongue was formed when the neutral wind in the region changed from mostly equatorward to poleward, which transported the ∑O/N2 rich air from lower latitudes into this longitude section, forming the neutral tongue. The neutral tongue separated an earlier-formed large depletion region into two smaller depleted regions on each side of the neutral tongue.</p> <p>Link to paper: <a href="https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2020JA028817">Investigation of a Neutral “Tongue” Observed by GOLD During the Geomagnetic Storm on May 11, 2019</a></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container block block-views block-views-blockarticles-recent-news"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Recent News</h2> <div><div class="view view-articles view-id-articles view-display-id-recent_news js-view-dom-id-08e83e9d1b39ddb37837fa1e2b645dbbc3dd3b246b851f9dbd724cde7569ef8a"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="views-view-grid horizontal cols-3 col-12 mb-2 mb-md-4"> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-1"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden 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block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2021-05-04T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Tue, 05/04/2021 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="en">Alan Burns</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/29" hreflang="en">Stan Solomon</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Wenbin Wang</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/38" hreflang="en">Xuguang Cai</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/37" hreflang="en">GOLD</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/25" hreflang="en">TIEGCM</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Mon, 15 Nov 2021 22:46:36 +0000 kolinski 25 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu Variations in thermosphere composition and ionosphere total electron content under ‘geomagnetically quiet’ conditions at solar-minimum https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/news/publication-highlight/variations-thermosphere-composition-and-ionosphere-total-electron <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Variations in thermosphere composition and ionosphere total electron content under ‘geomagnetically quiet’ conditions at solar-minimum</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">kolinski</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 11/15/2021 - 15:29</span> <div class="layout__region--twocol d-grid d-print-flex with-sidebar"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--main-top breadcrumb-wrapper mt-2"> <div class="block block-system block-system-breadcrumb-block"> <nav class="mb-2 d-print-none" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="system-breadcrumb"> <h2 id="system-breadcrumb" class="visually-hidden">Breadcrumb</h2> <ol class="breadcrumb"> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/">Home</a> </li> <li class="breadcrumb-item"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/38">Xuguang Cai</a> </li> </ol> </nav> </div> </div> <main class="layout__region layout__region--main main-content-wrapper"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-subtitle"> <p class="field field--name-field-subtitle field--type-string field--label-above mb-4 mt-n4">Publication name: Geophysical Research Letters; Authors: Xuguang Cai, Alan G. Burns, Wenbin Wang, Liying Qian, Nicholas Pedatella, Anthea Coster, Shunrong Zhang, Stanley C. Solomon, Richard W. Eastes, Robert E. Daniell, William E. McClintock</p> </div> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-extra-field-blocknodearticleauthor-and-created"> <div class="author_created row gx-0"> <div class="col"> <div class="fw-bold fs-6">Author:</div> <div class="author_created__name fs-6">kolinski</div> <div class="author_created__date text-gray-dark fs-6">Nov 15, 2021</div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="mt-3 mt-md-4 block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-main-content"> <div class="field field--name-field-main-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--rich-text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>We conducted observational and modeling studies of thermospheric composition and ionospheric total electron content (TEC) variations during two geomagnetically quiet periods (maximum Kp=1.7) at solar minimum. Daytime thermospheric O and N2 column density ratio (∑O/N2) observed by Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) and TEC from a network of ground-based Global Navigation Satellites System receivers both exhibited large (∼30% of reference values) and long-lived (5-11 hours) day-to-day variations in roughly the same mid-latitude geographic regions.</p> <figure class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-default figure mb-1 mb-md-4"> <p> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/extra_large/public/images/nfig1nA%2520%25282%2529.jpg?itok=xNbXhBJN" width="926" height="926" alt="a) AE index and b) Kp and Dst between DOY 109 and 112" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-extra-large img-fluid" /></p> <figcaption class="figure-caption pb-1"> <p>a) AE index and b) Kp and Dst between DOY 109 and 112. The percentage difference of observed c) ∑O/N2 and d) TEC between DOY 111 and 110 at 15:10 UT. The corresponding percentage difference of ∑O/N2 and TEC simulated by TIE-GCM with Weimer (e and f) and TIE-GCM without Weimer (g and h)</p> </figcaption> </figure> <p>Numerical simulations replicated the observed variability, though not perfectly. Analysis of the simulations suggested that the variations were mainly generated in the high-latitudes, and were subsequently advected equatorward and westward. When high-latitudes input was turned off in simulations, the variations were negligible. This suggested the potentially important role of high-latitude geomagnetic forcing in thermospheric composition and ionospheric density variations at mid-latitudes even during some ‘geomagnetically quiet’ periods at solar-minimum.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container block block-views block-views-blockarticles-recent-news"> <h2 class="mb-md-2">Recent News</h2> <div><div class="view view-articles view-id-articles view-display-id-recent_news js-view-dom-id-b94e6a394469836b370db93a2c5181d937499a1442039178089464892dc91ab8"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="views-view-grid horizontal cols-3 col-12 mb-2 mb-md-4"> <div class="row row-cols-1 row-cols-sm-2 row-cols-md-3 g-2 g-md-4 row-1"> <div class="col"><div class="pb-3 pb-md-0"> <figure> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__item"> <a 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block-field-blocknodearticlefield-story-date"> <div class="field field--name-field-story-date field--type-datetime field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Date</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2021-05-28T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">Fri, 05/28/2021 - 12:00</time> </div> </div> </div> </main> <aside class="layout__region layout__region--sidebar resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="block block-layout-builder block-field-blocknodearticlefield-article-tags"> <div class="resources-wrapper d-print-none"> <div class="resources related mb-4"> <h2 class="p-2 px-md-3">Tags</h2> <div class="p-2 px-md-3 py-md-3"> <a href="/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="en">Alan Burns</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/27" hreflang="en">Liying Qian</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/16" hreflang="en">Nick Pedatella</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/29" hreflang="en">Stan Solomon</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Wenbin Wang</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/38" hreflang="en">Xuguang Cai</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/37" hreflang="en">GOLD</a>, <a href="/taxonomy/term/25" hreflang="en">TIEGCM</a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </aside> </div> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div > </div> </div> Mon, 15 Nov 2021 22:29:20 +0000 kolinski 23 at https://www2.hao.ucar.edu