NCAR

About the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory

The Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) occupies part of the NOAA Mauna Loa research site located on the flank of Mauna Loa at an elevation of 3440 meters on the island of Hawaii. It is operated by the High Altitude Observatory, a division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is located in Boulder, Colorado.

Predictability of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere during Major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings

SW2 amplitude in meridional wind
Friday, June 18, 2021

Stratosphere sudden warmings (SSWs) are strong disturbances in the high latitude, wintertime, stratospheric polar vortex.

Geospace response to an extreme solar flare

Solar flare effects on magnetospheric convection and ionospheric potential.
Friday, June 18, 2021

Solar flares—a sudden eruption of electromagnetic radiation at the Sun—are known to have significant impacts on Earth’s upper atmosphere and ionosphere, but their collective effects on geospace as an integrated system have never been examined.

Climate Changes in the Upper Atmosphere: Contributions by the Changing Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and Earth's Magnetic Field, 1960s–2010s

Simulated thermosphere and ionosphere temperatures at 300 km in the 1960s, etc.
Friday, June 18, 2021

Previous studies have established the importance of the increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in causing trends in the thermosphere and ionosphere (T-I). Recent work indicates that the changing Earth’s magnetic field is also important.

Qingyu Zhu

Variations in thermosphere composition and ionosphere total electron content under ‘geomagnetically quiet’ conditions at solar-minimum

Tie-GCM Graphic
Friday, May 28, 2021

We conducted observational and modeling studies of thermospheric composition and ionospheric total electron content (TEC) variations during two geomagnetically quiet periods (maximum Kp=1.7) at solar minimum.

The Marshall Field Site

Damon Burke and Steve Tomczyk standing in front of optical equipment at Marshall Fields

HAO engineer Damon Burke and Senior Scientist Steve Tomczyk are shown in front of a suite of remote observing instrumentation at the Marshall Field site.

Atomic structure calculations of Land ́e g factors of astrophysical interest with direct applications for solar coronal magnetometry

Non-relativistic Land ́e g factor
Thursday, May 6, 2021

We perform a detailed theoretical study of the atomic structure of ions with ns2npm ground configurations and focus on departures from LS coupling which directly affect the Land ́e g factors of magnetic dipole lines between levels of the ground terms.

Investigation of a neutral ‘tongue’ observed by GOLD during the geomagnetic storm on May 11,2019

Latitude-longitude distribution of percentage difference
Tuesday, May 4, 2021

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global-scale observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission observed a unique structure of thermospheric column density ratio of O to N2 (∑O/N2) during a geomagnetic storm on day of year (DOY) 130 (May 10) to DOY 132 in 2019.

Simulating Properties of “Seasonal” Variability in Solar Activity And Space Weather Impacts

The Van-Allen Radiation belt electron
Wednesday, April 21, 2021

Solar short-term, quasi-annual variability within a decadal sunspot-cycle has recently been observed to strongly correlate with major class solar flares, resulting into quasi-periodic space weather “seasons”.

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