About the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory

The Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) occupies part of the NOAA Mauna Loa research site located on the flank of Mauna Loa at an elevation of 3440 meters on the island of Hawaii. It is operated by the High Altitude Observatory, a division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is located in Boulder, Colorado.

The 2‐D Evolution of Thermospheric ∑O/N2 Response to Weak Geomagnetic Activity During Solar‐Minimum Observed by GOLD

Graphic image 2D evolution of thermospheric ∑O/N2 response
Wednesday, September 16, 2020

We conduct observational and modeling studies of thermospheric composition responses to weak geomagnetic activity (non-geomagnetic storms). We found that the thermospheric O and N 2 column density ratio (∑O/N 2 ) in part of the Northern Hemisphere measured by

Comparison of GOLD nighttime measurements with total electron content: preliminary results

Graphic image depicting the comparison between the GOLD map and TEC2 map
Friday, August 28, 2020

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global‐scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) has been imaging the thermosphere and ionosphere since October 2018. It provides continuous measurements over a large area from its geostationary orbit.

Mapping the magnetic field in the solar corona through magnetoseismology

Graphic image of magnetoseismology observations
Friday, August 14, 2020

Magnetoseismology, a technique of magnetic field diagnostics based on observations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, has been widely used to estimate the field strengths of oscillating structures in the solar corona.

Global Maps of the Magnetic Field in the Solar Corona

Graphic image of magnetic field model

An international team led by solar physicists from Peking University, China and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), USA, has recently measured the global magnetic field of the solar corona for the first time.

Deepak Karan

Deepak Karan is a visiting postdoc at HAO/NCAR. He pursued his Ph.D. work at Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India and received a degree in Physics from Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, India.

Dynamics of Late-Stage Reconnection in the 2017 September 10 Solar Flare

Graphic depicting white light images
Tuesday, August 4, 2020

In this multi-instrument paper, we search for evidence of sustained magnetic reconnection far beyond the impulsive phase of the X8.2-class solar flare on 2017 September 10.

HAO affiliate scientist, Dr. Joe Huba, published in a popular-science journal

Photographic image of affiliate scientist Joe Huba

Dr. Joe Huba is a Senior Research Scientist at Syntek Technologies in Virginia and a long-standing Affiliate Scientist at HAO. In a Scientia article, he explores the complex process of vast plasma bubbles forming in the upper atmosphere and quickly ascending into space.

Equatorial Ionospheric Electrodynamics

Graphic image depicting vertical drifts over Jicamarca
Thursday, July 23, 2020

The low latitude ionosphere is one of the dynamic regions of the Earth’s upper atmosphere. The morphology of this region is controlled by radiative and coupled chemical, neutral and plasma transport processes.

Planetary wave (PW) generation in the thermosphere driven by the PW-modulated tidal spectrum

Graphic image of Q6DW zonal wind amplitudes
Thursday, July 16, 2020

The National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIE-GCM) is used to conduct numerical experiments that isolate and elucidate a substantial modication of the quasi-6-day wave (Q6DW) above 110 km due to presence of the planetary wave (


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