Stanley Solomon

Whole Atmosphere Climate Change: Dependence on Solar Activity

Graph of global simulations
Thursday, May 9, 2019

Solomon and colleagues conducted global simulations of temperature change due to emissions of trace gases due to human activity, that extended from the surface, throughout the atmosphere, to space.

A theoretical study of the responses of mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) winds to geomagnetic storms at middle latitudes

Differences of meridional acceleration terms
Friday, May 3, 2019

In a recent work, we found that, in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region at middle latitudes, adiabatic heating/cooling and vertical heat advection, both associated with vertical wind changes, are the dominant processes that determine the temperature responses to storms.

Validation of Ionospheric Specifications During Geomagnetic Storms: TEC and foF2 during the 2013 March Storm Event

Multiple scatter plots of Geomagnetic storms
Wednesday, March 6, 2019

To address challenges of assessing capabilities of space weather modeling, the CCMC (Community Coordinated Modeling Center) is leading a newly established “International Forum for Space Weather Modeling Capabilities Assessment.”

Space Weather Modeling Capabilities Assessment: Neutral Density and Orbit Determination at LEO

Graph depicting TIE-GCM density ratios computed with 2007 CHAMP data
Monday, February 25, 2019

The specification and prediction of density changes in the thermosphere is a key challenge for space weather observations and modeling, because it is one result of complex interactions between the Sun and the terrestrial atmosphere, and also because it is of operational importance for tracking ob

The Effect of Small-Scale Magnetic Structures on Inferred Solar Continuum Brightness

Average intensity of magnetic structures
Monday, December 3, 2018

Solar irradiance models indicate that irradiance variations are dominated by changes in disk-coverage of magnetic structures, whose brightness is thought to be determined by their size and average magnetic flux density.

The long-term trends of nocturnal mesopause temperature and altitude revealed by the Na lidar observations between 1990 and 2018 at mid-latitude

Graph showing WACCM-X (2.0) simulated summer temperature profiles of year 1974 and year 2003
Sunday, December 2, 2018

The nighttime mesopause, marking the boundary of mesosphere and thermosphere and having the coldest atmospheric temperature, is formed mainly by the combination of radiative cooling by CO2, and the adiabatic flow in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere.

Self-consistent modeling of electron precipitation and responses in the ionosphere

The time evolution of height-dependent (a) electron density, (b) ionization rate, (c) Pedersen conductivity, and (d) Hall conductivity at MLT = 6 and magnetic latitude of 60
Monday, June 18, 2018

Stan Solomon et al, dicuss a new modeling capability that self-consistently couples physics-based magnetospheric 18 electron precipitation with its impact on the ionosphere, representing a significant improvement over previous models.

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