Ionosphere

NASA Features Research by HAO Scientist Xuguang Cai

Satellite with spectrograph instrumentation hovering over the earth

Since 2017, HAO has provided scientific support and analysis for NASA's Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD).

Climate Changes in the Upper Atmosphere: Contributions by the Changing Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and Earth's Magnetic Field From the 1960s to 2010s

Graph depicting Simulated thermosphere and ionosphere temperatures at 300 km in the 1960s
Wednesday, June 23, 2021

Previous studies have established the importance of the increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in causing trends in the thermosphere and ionosphere (T-I). Recent work indicates that the changing Earth’s magnetic field is also important.

Data-Driven Ensemble Modeling of Equatorial Ionospheric Electrodynamics

Graphic depicting root-mean-square difference of the plasma drift
Thursday, February 4, 2021

A Case Study During a Minor Storm Period Under Solar Minimum Conditions: The dayside equatorial ionospheric electrodynamics exhibits strong variability driven simultaneously by highly changeable external forcings that originate from the Sun, magnetosphere, and lower atmosphere.

Migrating Semidiurnal Tide during the September Equinox Transition in the Northern Hemisphere

Graphic depicting migrating semidiurnal tide
Thursday, January 28, 2021

Specified Dynamics Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model with thermosphere-ionosphere eXtension (SD-WACCMX) simulations are used to investigate the solar migrating semidiurnal tide (SW2) around September equinox at middle to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.

Modeling Diurnal Variation Magnetic Fields for Mantle Induction Studies

Graphic image of the magnetic Bx component
Thursday, January 28, 2021

Accurate models of the spatial structure of ionospheric magnetic fields in the daily variation (DV) band (periods of approximately a few hours to a day) would enable use of magneto-variational methods for three-dimensional imaging of upper mantle and transition zone electrical conductivity.

Formation of Double Tongues of Ionization During the 17 March 2013 Geomagnetic Storm

Graphic image showing polar maps of the simulated electron density
Friday, October 2, 2020

During geomagnetic disturbances, enhanced high‐latitude convection transports ionospheric F2‐region plasma from the dayside midlatitude region into the polar cap, leading to structures such as tongues of ionization (TOIs) and patches.

Dipolar elementary current systems for ionospheric current reconstruction at low and middle latitudes

Graphic image showing the maps of the E-region horizontal and radial currents
Friday, October 2, 2020

The flow of ionospheric current can be probed by examining magnetic field measurements at the ground and at Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) altitude.

Comparison of GOLD nighttime measurements with total electron content: preliminary results

Graphic image depicting the comparison between the GOLD map and TEC2 map
Friday, August 28, 2020

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global‐scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) has been imaging the thermosphere and ionosphere since October 2018. It provides continuous measurements over a large area from its geostationary orbit.

Assimilation of Ionosphere Observations in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model with thermosphere-ionosphere eXtension (WACCMX)

Graphic image of WACCMX+DART experiments
Thursday, July 16, 2020

The Earth’s upper atmosphere impacts a wide range of technologies, including satellite communication and navigation signals. Specification and forecasting of the upper atmosphere are critical for mitigating these effects.

Preliminary Evidence of Madden-Julian Oscillation Effects on Ultra-Fast Tropical Waves in the Thermosphere

Graphic image of altitude (50-260 km) versus MJO phase depiction
Wednesday, June 10, 2020

Over the past two decades mounting evidence demonstrated that terrestrial weather significantly influences the dynamics and mean state of the thermosphere.

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