Meridional circulation

Control of ionospheric plasma velocities by thermospheric winds

A three-dimensional diagram ICON observations Indicating In-situ Ion Drift
Friday, October 22, 2021

Earth’s equatorial ionosphere exhibits significant and unpredictable day-to-day variations in density and morphology. This presents difficulties in preparing for adverse impacts on technological systems even 24 hours in advance.

Probing the Solar Meridional Circulation using Fourier Legendre Decomposition

Graph depicting measured Doppler frequency shifts
Thursday, June 24, 2021

We apply the helioseismic methodology of Legendre Function Decomposition to 88 months of Dopp- lergrams obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) as the basis of inferring the depth variation of the mean meridional flow, as averaged between 20 and 60 degrees latitude and in time, in

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