Observations

About the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory

The Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) occupies part of the NOAA Mauna Loa research site located on the flank of Mauna Loa at an elevation of 3440 meters on the island of Hawaii. It is operated by the High Altitude Observatory, a division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is located in Boulder, Colorado.

NO transport via Lagrangian Coherent Structures into the top of the polar vortex

Daily average WACCMX+DART NO profiles
Tuesday, July 13, 2021

The energetic particle precipitation (EPP) indirect effect (IE) refers to the downward transport of reactive odd nitrogen (NOx=NO+NO2) produced by EPP (EPP-NOx) from the polar winter mesosphere and lower thermosphere to the stratosphere where it can destroy ozone.

Characteristics of small-scale gravity waves in the Arctic winter mesosphere

Histogram of small-scale GWs’ parameters observed by All-sky OH airglow imager at Resolute Bay Observatory
Tuesday, July 13, 2021

Observational datasets in the polar middle atmosphere are extremely valuable for understanding the polar dynamics and coupling between lower and middle atmosphere.

Post-midnight O+ Depletions Observed by ICON: Data/Model Comparison

Data/Model Comparison
Wednesday, June 30, 2021

The NASA Ionosphere Connection explorer was launched in October 2019 with the goal of understanding the transition from Earth's atmosphere to space by measuring key quantities at low latitudes.

The Marshall Field Site

Damon Burke and Steve Tomczyk standing in front of optical equipment at Marshall Fields

HAO engineer Damon Burke and Senior Scientist Steve Tomczyk are shown in front of a suite of remote observing instrumentation at the Marshall Field site.

Magnetic structure of the solar chromosphere-corona transition regions

Graphic image of CLASP2 observations
Thursday, March 11, 2021

The bulk of the emission from the plasma called "transition region" plasma originates from structures energetically connected both to the chromosphere and corona.

On single-point inversions of magnetic dipole lines in the corona

Graphic image showing scattering geometry
Wednesday, March 3, 2021

Prompted by a recent paper by Dima and Schad, we re-consider the problem of inferring magnetic properties of the corona using polarimetric observations of magnetic dipole (M1) lines.

Sudden Stratospheric Warmings

Graphic image of ionospheric behavior during the 2009 SSW event
Friday, October 23, 2020

Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) are impressive fluid dynamical events in which large and rapid temperature increases in the winter polar stratosphere (∼10–50km) are associated with a complete reversal of the climatological wintertime westerly winds.

Mapping the magnetic field in the solar corona through magnetoseismology

Graphic image of magnetoseismology observations
Friday, August 14, 2020

Magnetoseismology, a technique of magnetic field diagnostics based on observations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, has been widely used to estimate the field strengths of oscillating structures in the solar corona.

Assimilation of Ionosphere Observations in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model with thermosphere-ionosphere eXtension (WACCMX)

Graphic image of WACCMX+DART experiments
Thursday, July 16, 2020

The Earth’s upper atmosphere impacts a wide range of technologies, including satellite communication and navigation signals. Specification and forecasting of the upper atmosphere are critical for mitigating these effects.

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