Solar Wind

Predictability of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere during Major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings

SW2 amplitude in meridional wind
Friday, June 18, 2021

Stratosphere sudden warmings (SSWs) are strong disturbances in the high latitude, wintertime, stratospheric polar vortex.

Geospace response to an extreme solar flare

Solar flare effects on magnetospheric convection and ionospheric potential.
Friday, June 18, 2021

Solar flares—a sudden eruption of electromagnetic radiation at the Sun—are known to have significant impacts on Earth’s upper atmosphere and ionosphere, but their collective effects on geospace as an integrated system have never been examined.

Detecting the Chromospheric Footpoints of the Solar Wind

Graphic image depicting SDO and IRIS full-disk observations
Tuesday, November 24, 2020

Coronal Holes present the source of the fast solar wind. However, the fast solar wind is not unimodal—there are discrete, but subtle, compositional, velocity, and density structures that differentiate different coronal holes as well as wind streams that originate within one coronal hole.

Boon Chye Low

Dr. Boon Chye Low joined HAO in 1981 and retired as Senior Scientist in 2014. His research centered on the corona & solar wind and their coupling to the solar lower-atmosphere and interior.

PUNCH will Change how we Look at Young Solar Wind

Graphic depicting the PUNCH mission (Image: SwRI)

NASA's recently-funded Small-Explorer (SMEX) mission, PUNCH (Polarimeter to UNify the Corona and Heliosphere), is targeted to launch in 2022.

Constraints Imposed by the Square-Root Spin-down Law on Coronal Wind Parameters

Graph depicting Coronal Wind Mass-Loss Rate
Thursday, March 7, 2019

We derive an explicit expression for the coronal wind mass-loss rate. This result is based on a currently used generalized torque formula (per unit rotational velocity) expressed as a product of known monomials, separately for the magnetic field and the mass-loss rate.

The Mid-latitude Thermospheric Dynamics from An Inter-hemispheric Prospective

Graph depicting Meridional and Zonal Winds
Monday, January 28, 2019

Using Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI) at five mid-latitude stations (Boulder, Palmer, Millstone Hill, Mt. John, and Kelan) in both hemispheres, we examine the inter-hemispheric and seasonal variations of mid-latitude thermospheric dynamics.

Kevin Pham

Dr. Kevin Pham is a Project Scientist in the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research specializing in the magnetosphere and radiation belt precipitation.

Temporal Variation of Solar Wind in Controlling Solar Wind‐Magnetosphere‐Ionosphere Energy Budget

Cross-correlation between Joule heating and the Epsilon function.
Thursday, September 13, 2018

Periodic oscillations associated with Alfven waves with periods ranging from several tens of minutes to several hours are commonly seen in the solar wind.

The longitudinal variations of upper thermospheric zonal winds observed by the CHAMP satellite at low and mid-latitudes

Longitudinal structures of zonal winds
Thursday, March 1, 2018

In this work, Kedeng Zhang, Wenbin Wang and others, investigate the longitudinal patterns of thermospheric zonal winds (~400 km) and their seasonal and solar activity dependence.

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