The main focus of SWG1 is to understand the origin of the solar cycle. Determine the drivers of space weather by understanding the physical processes of magnetic flux emergence, and the initiation of solar eruptions such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).

The main focus of SWG2 is to advance understanding of solar magnetism. This will be done by engaging with the scientific community to further the study of fundamental plasma processes (kinetic, magnetic, radiative) and advance the development of polarized radiation transfer models and new diagnostic tools.

The main focus of SWG3 is to overcome roadblocks in the path to full capability for predicting Bz and other solar-wind properties at the Earth.

The main focus of SWG4 is to the development and support of HAO’s leadership and heritage in community geospace modeling activities. This includes the development of advanced models of the Sun-Earth system in order to solve critical problems of solar-terrestrial physics in collaboration with and support of the broader community and to develop capability for forecasting and attribution of space weather and space climate hazards.

The SWG5 is a cross-disciplinary group, including scientists from HAO and CISL, dedicated to the development and utilization of data assimilation for the betterment of understanding that ultimately leads to better forecast skill across the solar and geospace disciplines. The group works to develop solar and ionosphere-thermosphere data assimilation models. These models are subsequently used to address outstanding scientific questions, assess the limits of practical predictability, and improve space weather modelling and forecasting.

The main focus of SWG6 is to study the climatology of the geospace environment and to research the drivers and responses of the coupled Sun-Earth system. Its goal is to enable a better understanding and attribution of solar variability, its impact on the upper atmosphere and space climate, and its interaction with anthropogenic change from monthly to decadal and longer time-scales.

The main focus of SWG7 is to maintain a coordinated, effective, meaningful, and sustainable effort to educate and engage students, policymakers, and the general public in HAO science and to promote diversity and a culture of inclusiveness within HAO and throughout the broader atmospheric, solar, and space science community.

The main focus of SWG8 is to identify who our community is, understand community needs, ensure effective interface to the community, and act as a conduit to staff groups, to implement tools and products as appropriate. This team is charged with providing guidance for HAO’s data products, simulation output, high-level website content, user databases, and metrics. This group will be charged with developing a framework for one data interface, maintaining it, and cultivating a comprehensive list of HAO’s community worldwide.